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Amateur emo girls porn. Wife sucks boss cock. Lita free pron clips. Cartoon porn shemale mom. Girls tan in the nude. Gay bdsm gangbang. Nirvana smells like teens spirit. Download family sex grouppic. Watch Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual HOT ♨ Videos Algo así se gesta ahora mismo en CasaBrandon, solo que Federico ahora es texto, la inauguración es continua y el pueblo son les amigues. Porque saber también es una deuda. Una deuda con un pasado que merece ser conocido y reconocido; una deuda con un presente combativo que necesita conocer sus flancos, sus pares, sus compañeres y sus contrapartes; una deuda con el futuro y sus infinitas posibilidades. La memoria y la pulsión puestas sobre la mesa o en las estanterías al alcance de quienes quieran expandir la propia mirada. Somos todo eso en Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual justa medida: lo que sabemos, pero también todo lo que nos falta por saber. Aceptamos libros, revistas, documentos, fanzines y fotocopias, en formato físico y digital. Vamos a seguir haciendo de la casita un espacio de construcción. Un espacio para estar, para divertirse y encontrarse con amigues, para comer y para Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, un lugar para escucharnos, entendernos, formarnos y — ahora también — un lugar para leernos. Y el amor — amor, por supuesto. Luis María Drago Close X Search anytime by typing. Medio pan y un libro. La frontera. Las hijas ausentes España Egales Redmann, J. Una nueva mitología queer. Huilo C. Watch PORN Movies Bankank Saex.

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La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Universidad Simón Bolívar. Fundación Bengoa para la Alimentación y Nutrición. Caracas Venezuela. El uso de referencias nacionales e internacionales para diagnosticar el estado nutricional es una discusión de larga data, debido a las discrepancias en los resultados.

Este estudio comparativo fue aplicado sobre una subpoblación de la base de datos de la Unidad de Bioantropología, Actividad Física y Salud, de adolescentes femeninas, escolarizadas, entre 10 y 15 años, article source distintas regiones venezolanas. Se calculó el coeficiente Kappa ponderado para medir la concordancia del IMC por ambas referencias, se determinó la precisión del IMC en cada caso, utilizando medidas de sensibilidad y especificidad.

Se Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual razones de verosimilitud diagnóstica para comparar el desempeño de ambos clasificadores de composición corporal. Palabras clave: Menarquia, composición corporal, concordancias, razones de Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, referencia nacional e internacional, Venezuela.

Concordance between national and international bodymass index as a predictor of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal adolescents. Use of national and international references for the diagnosis Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual nutritional status is Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual. Concordance between national and international body mass index as predictors of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal female adolescents agesclassified according to occurrence of menarche, that were part of the database of the bioanthropology, physical activity and health unit, were películas Gratis adolescente porno sexy. The weighted Kappa coefficient was applied to evaluate the concordance between BMI by national and international references, as well as to assess the precision of BMI by means of sensibility and specificity.

Additionally, diagnostic verisimilitude ratio was estimated to measure the efficiency of both article source in the classification of body composition.

The weighted Kappa showed greater concordance in UFA 0. The presence of menarche increased the concordances: UFA 0. The positive and negative diagnostic likelihood ratios were consistently greater than one, for fat and muscle area, especially when using ENCDH reference. Key words: Menarche, body composition, weighted Kappa coefficient, diagnostic likelihood ratios, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual and national growth references, Venezuela.

Recibido: El uso de este indicador en un comienzo estuvo restringido a la evaluación del adulto, pero en tiempos recientes ha sido igualmente recomendado para la valoración de niños y adolescentes 5, 6 Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, ya que el IMC permite estimar los cambios de la adiposidad en la etapa del crecimiento, al presentar una alta tendencia a la canalización 7.

Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo de acuerdo con las normas Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual reconocidas por la declaración de Helsinski Las variables consideradas para este estudio fueron las siguientes: peso en kg Ptalla Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual metros Tpliegue tríceps en mm PlTrcircunferencia media del brazo en cm CBedad en Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual E y presencia o no de la menarquia.

Para efectos de interpretación se ha convenido en asumir el siguiente criterio para la concordancia: pobre 0,2débil 0,4moderada 0,6buena 0,8 y muy buena 0,8 -1,0. A nivel mundial se han llevado a cabo diversas reuniones de expertos para consensuar distintos criterios técnicos y metodológicos, en torno al uso e interpretación de los indicadores antropométricos en la investigación científica y en la definición de políticas de salud de niños y adolescentes, relacionadas con el estado nutricional de este grupo poblacional.

Adicionalmente, se consideró la presencia o ausencia de la menarquia como un factor importante para evaluar los resultados de la predicción. Este comportamiento de las reglas queda manifiesto también en las razones de verosimilitud diagnósticas positivas, siempre mayores en ENCDH que en OMS.

Esta eficiencia se traduce en la escogencia de la referencia diagnóstica apropiada, ya que una clasifica mejor a los normales y la otra mejor a la malnutrición.

Se ha llegado a conclusiones similares en estudios realizados en poblaciones belgas, norteamericanas y venezolanas, basados en los diferentes grados de maduración, los cuales inciden en modificaciones de la composición corporal que alteran a su vez, la valoración del estado nutricional Estos resultados vendrían a fortalecer la propuesta de Atalah y colaboradores 32en cuanto a la necesidad de retomar mesas de trabajo para dilucidar el tema del uso de referencias locales versus internacionales, ya que las diferencias encontradas así lo justifican.

A better index of body adiposity. Obesity ; 19 5 Am J Clin Nutr ; 79 5 : Body mass index cut offs to define thickness in children and adolescents: international survey.

BMJ ; : Sensibilidad y especificidad de indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad y distribución de grasa en niños y adolescentes venezolanos. Interciencia ; 34 2 : Validity of the Body Mass Index as an indicator of the risk and presence of overweight in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr ; 70 Suppl. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BMI z score is the optimal measure of annual adiposity change in elementary school children.

An Hum Biol ; 38 6 : Eveleth P. Valores de referencia. Caracas ; pp. Maduración Temprana. Factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad?. Patterns of body mass and muscular components in children and adolescents of Caracas. Acta Med Auxol ; 33 3 Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: Comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56 3 : Arch Dis Child ; 96 10 : The use of local reference growth charts for clinical use or universal standard: a balanced appraisal.

Endocrinol Invest ; 35 2 : Méndez Castellano H. Proyecto Venezuela. Méndez Castellano editor. Escuela Técnica Popular Don Bosco. Tomo II. Caracas ; p. World Health Organization. Disponibleen: www. World Medical Association. Fortaleza, Brazil Protocolo Internacional para la Valoración Antropométrica. Stewart, M. Marfell-Jones, T. Olds, H. Publicado por ISAK.

Biblioteca Nacional de Australia ; p. Indices of relative weight and obesity.

Fletching sussex Watch SEX Videos Xzxxxxx Videos. Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenes , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E. Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V. El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2. Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca. Tras el ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura. Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma. Respecto al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores. Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente informar al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan. En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante. Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1. Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una menor pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1. Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, todas las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2. Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron ser significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto de hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar el poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas. A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen que con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento. De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5. En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35 , se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas con 0. En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Por lo tanto los autores con cluyeron que un 0. Un estudio desarro llado por Saini et al. La desecación me diante exposición solar fue la que mayores pérdidas causó. La Moringa oleifera ha sido utilizada de forma an cestral como curativo o paliativo de enfermedades de muy diversa índole. Sin embargo son todavía escasos los estudios acerca de los beneficios de la moringa utilizada como ingrediente alimentario. Los estudios en alimentos se centran valorar el incremento de las propiedades nu tritivas y la aceptación por parte del consumidor. Una vez descritas las propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud, el amplio margen de seguri dad en humanos 2 y también la validez como antio xidante y conservante alimentario, es necesario incrementar las investigaciones relativas al efecto sobre el organismo derivado del consumo de estos alimentos enriquecidos, teniendo en cuenta diversas variables como las posibles pérdidas de actividad durante el tra tamiento o la interacción con otros compuestos de los mismos, entre otras. Cultivos promisorios para enfriar el clima y alimentar al mundo. Murcia Review of the Safety and Effi cacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res. Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam. Vibrio spp. Asian Pac J Trop Med. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a sustainable solution for potable water. RSC Adv. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagas car? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Food and nutrition sciences. Folate fortification of white and whole-grain bread by adding Swiss chard and spinach. Acceptability by consumers. Quality characteris tics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Mo ringa oleifera seed flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Effect of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase on the quality of pan bread during storage. Nwakalor CN. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Food Sci Tech Mys. Moringa oleifera leaves extract: a natural antioxidant for retar ding lipid peroxidation in cooked goat meat patties. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of synthetic chemical XVIII -in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo supravital micronucleus assay with butylated hydroxytoluene BHT. Effects of different levels of Moringa Moringa oleifera seed flour on quality attributes of beef burgers. CyTA-J Food. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves in her bal chicken sausages. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic rich Moringa oleifera Lam. Extracts in food systems. J Food Bio chem. Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, toco pherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Mo ringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product. Recibido: Aceptado: Solomons, Odilia I. The dietary practices of diverse population groups, associated with the nutritional transition and the rapid demographic changes occurring globally require more attention to the food preferences of migrant groups such as Latinos living in the United States United States of America US. This work aimed at the performance of an instrument utilized to measure availability of healthy food options in Latino stores located in the town of Somerville, state of Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There was a general lack of healthy food options found when using the US survey, as well as a relatively narrow selection of fruits and vegetables. As conclusion, it was found that the US NEMS S tended to identify a lower number of healthy food options, as compared to a larger number of similar options when a culturally appropriate survey was used. These findings illustrate a manner in which a culture specific instrument perform more appropriately than similar instruments adapted for other population groups, especially when the results are to be applied to support development of healthy food policies. Este trabajo documenta los resultados de aplicar un instrumento para medir disponibilidad de alimentos saludables en tres tiendas latinas ubicadas en la ciudad de Somerville, estado de Massachusetts. La metodología utilizada incluyó la aplicación de dos versiones: guatemalteca y EU de la Encuesta para Medir Ambiente Nutricional en Tiendas NEMS S, siglas en inglés , para evaluar la disponibilidad de alimentos saludables. Los datos se analizaron con estadísticas descriptivas. Estos hallazgos ilustran la importancia de utilizar instrumentos específicos para determinar disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, especialmente cuando los resultados se utilicen para apoyar el desarrollo de políticas alimentarias. Recibido: 16 09 Aceptado: 11 03 Food patterns and consumption practices are intrinsic components of population groups across the world. Those dietary practices are influenced by the physical environment, particularly those products identified as edibles, but also by the cultural practices that define people. Extensive research indicates that food patterns play substantial roles in the causation and prevention of chronic, non communicable diseases 1 and that the food environment, including access to food outlets and the presence of healthy choices, is associated with eating behaviors 2, 3. It has been shown that shopping preferences are linked to obesity and that the lack of healthy food options in grocery stores leads to weight gain 4. Successful policies should also be part of a larger plan to change social norms 5. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6. We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10 , including their food preferences. Despite the significance of culture in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, Hondurans and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States. The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge by assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts. Researchers believed that the conduct of the GUA NEMS S would result in a more thorough analysis of the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in stores in Latino communities in the US be cause the items on the survey would match those being sold in these culturally specific stores. The primary objective of this study was to test the GUA NEMS S to examine the food environment in a convenient, small sample of Latino stores, located in East Somerville, in which there is a rapidly growing Latino population, primarily of Central American origin. Secondarily, researchers also utilized the NEMS S surveys to assess the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino stores. Through enumeration of the study area Eastern Massachusetts , researchers selected the city of East Somerville, for its urban location and large Latino population, particularly recent migrants of Central American origins. A list of food outlets was compiled from a previous study conducted in the area 12 and from the Somerville census data. This study focused only on grocery stores. After the creation of an initial list, where 8 stores were identified, researchers visited the study area to narrow the store selection and to obtain permission from storeowners. Food outlets were categorized using the system described in the NEMS online training The local Institutional Review Board approved this study, and owners or managers of the Latino stores gave in formed consent. Finally, researchers created store layouts of the items sold in the three Latino stores and diagramed the floor plans. NEMS S was the tool used to quantify the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino grocery stores of study. This new survey was pilot tested in stores in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and proved ac curate as a modification for items included in the Guatemalan diet The categories include: milk, fruit, vegetables each item. Within the categories, the individual items added to the Guatemala survey were papaya, pineapple, and plums for fruit, and green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoysquash, radishes and avocados for vegetables. These items were chosen to reflect the Guatemalan diet. Fruit and vegetable items were all considered healthy food options, and each additional category had regular and healthy options e. Pearson Chi Square tests were used to undertake four inquiries: 1. Inter survey comparison of the 29 common items: areas of interest were availability of healthier options, fruit, and vegetable items in the three Latino stores; 2. The stores were small, with only one or two cash registers. All three stores had sections for many of the same items found in larger stores and supermarkets. Many of the sections, however, were limited or lacking certain items. There were some unique properties to the stores. A lack of price labeling on the majority of food items was common to all three stores. Thus, the presence or absence of each of these items on the store shelves was identically reported by both raters for all three stores. Focusing on the non produce items Table 2 , all three stores had the following regular versions of index items: milk, baked goods, soda, juice, chips, and bread. Two out of three stores had skim milk, low sugar cereal, and whole wheat bread, on the healthier side, and regularly sweetened breakfast cereal. Only one store had frozen dinners and low fat baked goods available. Raters never found healthier versions of chips baked or frozen dinners low fat , nor were ground beef or hotdogs found in either regular or healthier format. Focusing on the specific avai lability of the healthier options, a first examination of the core items was done Table 2. For external comparability, a comparison of the core list of the 9 non produce items with soda and juice now constituting a single category of beverages was done across sites. The cumulative availability in Store 1 was By Chi square analysis, the differential availability, considering all 29 elements of the U. Four items in two contrast pairings i. All stores had both the healthier and re gular option for black beans. Conversely, neither skim nor whole milk in the boxed presentation was found in any store visited. Nine items were added to the GUA NEMS S, including three fruits: papaya, pineapple and plums, and six vegetables: green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoy, radish and avocado Table 3. Store 1 had none of the additional fruits. Store 2 had two of the three additional fruits and Store 3 had all three additional fruits Table 3. With regard to the additional vegetable items, Store 1 had two of the six items; Stores 2 and 3 both had four of the six items Table 3. Data was normalized by expressing them as the cumulative percentage availability from each separate origin. Overall, the percentage availability of fruits in the three stores was In summary, two of the three stores had at least one of the three added fruits available; two of the three stores had at least two of the six added vegetables available. All stores had canned black beans available. Of the three published studies that reported the instrument performance of the NEMS S, the inter reliability determined by kappa had range of 0. Com pared to these previous studies, the performance of the GUA NEMS S was consistent or exceeded that of the previous studies who have reported statistics on instrument performance. The high inter rater concordance between NEMS S raters could be in part due to a couple of favorable conditions. This allowed raters to thoroughly conduct the surveys instead of furtively scurrying to collect the data. Although desirable, these conditions are not characteristic of grocery stores, so future NEMS S raters should precede with caution. Rimkus et al aptly note that in study where raters are in the same supermarket simultaneously collecting data low inter rater reliability is unlikely given that both raters are exposed to the same supermarket environment at the same time Results indicate a range of availability of healthy food items between the three stores. Although located in the same area, and providing their services to the same population, it was noticed that Store 1 was poorly stocked for healthy items, whereas Stores 2 and 3 were better stocked with Store 3 having a slight advantage. To date, there are few studies that report the availability of each US NEMS S item in detail rather than a composite healthy food score 16, When com pared to these studies, there was substantially lower availability of baked chips, low fat baked goods, low fat beef, low fat hot dogs and any type of fruit. It becomes evident in appreciating the degree of homology 29 of 40 items in common across the instruments and the imbalance in number of items added to the GUA NEMS S, that no strict comparison of performance of the two versions of the instruments can be made. This would require further development of comparably sized listings in which the availability of foods culturally preferred over the US options are substituted for some of those of the dominant culture in the US NEMS S. This new survey still needs to be developed. However, the relative performance of the GUA NEMS S can be examined by looking at the sale of certain milk, beans, fruits and vegetables with a certain Latino affinity, in addition to those that are reflective of the US culture. Across stores, the number of healthy items identified as available increased in the three stores: in Store 1 9 vs. In their review of the food environment literature, Anderson Steeves and coworkers identified as a main gap the paucity of studies in di verse settings, especially within developing countries One study in Paraguay modified the NEMS S to study the Paraguayan food environment and found that healthy bread and dairy options were limited Mar tins et al also modified the NEMS S to study food environments in Brazil by expanding upon the degree of food processing and its association with obesity The comparisons between the work reported here and these studies are limited, but highlight the importance of designing and adopting survey methods to study food environments. The major strength of this study is the theme of availability of healthy food options in the context of acculturation occurring in migrant communities with established elements of the US society. While neither of them, however, was a native speaker of Spanish nonpart of the Latino community, the storeowners and store personnel, however, were sufficiently bilingual to exclude linguistic communication barriers as a problem in the study. One study in Paraguay modified the NEMS S to study the Paraguayan food environment and found that healthy bread and dairy options were limited Mar tins et al also modified the NEMS S to study food environments in Brazil by expanding upon the degree of food processing and its association with obesity The comparisons between the work reported here and these studies are limited, but highlight the importance of designing and adopting survey methods to study food environments. The major strength of this study is the theme of availability of healthy food options in the context of acculturation occurring in migrant communities with established elements of the US society. While neither of them, however, was a native speaker of Spanish nonpart of the Latino community, the storeowners and store personnel, however, were sufficiently bilingual to exclude linguistic communication barriers as a problem in the study. The orthodox NEMS S protocol calls for making the observations, when possible, without alerting the store personnel to the inspection. Under the study circumstances, however, it was considered necessary and appropriate to establish full transparency and obtain au theorization from the store owners. The achieved high inter rater scores may derive, in part, from the relaxed conditions in the inspection, without the distraction of the furtive nature of an unannounced survey. Moreover, the small overall number of items in the lists and their numerical as symmetry, with 29 items of established interest to the general US population and 40 of presumed relevance for the Latinos resident in the US, presented a problem in choice of a statistical approach for a strict parallel comparison across the instruments. The results of this study highlight the importance of attending to the cultural characteristics of the diverse population groups that are more inclined to do their food shopping in small, ethnic stores such as those frequented by Latinos. In the middle of the current epidemic of obesity and non communicable diseases associated with eating pat terns, it is needed to encourage and support owners of Latino stores to offer more ethnic specific healthy options of the traditional Latino food products. Additionally, in the future, a second generation of culturally sensitive NESM S, that substitutes foods of a more tropical and Central American origin in the listing, rather than simply adding them on, will need to be developed and tested in a similar context and paradigm as the one that gave the cultural framework to this study. Obesity and the food environment: dietary energy density and diet costs. Am J Prev Med ;27 3 Desig ned for disease: the link between local food environ ments and obesity and diabetes. Drewnowski A, Rolls BJ. How to modify the food en vironment. J Nutr ; 4 Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health ; Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement. Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot ;19 5 Asp EH. Factors affecting food decisions made by in dividual consumers. Food Policy ;24 2 Kumanyika SK. Environmental influences on child hood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav ;94 1 Italian ethnic identity and its relative impact on the consumption of conve nience and traditional foods. J Consum Mark ;15 2 Mankekar P. Ethnos ;67 1 A novel mobile phone application to assess nutrition environment measures in low and middle income countries. Food Nutr Bull ;35 3 Urban Bor derlands. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Updated Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form. J Nutr Educ Behav ;45 6 Am J Prev Med ;32 4 Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores. J Community Health ;35 3 Dietary acculturation: applications to nutrition rese arch and dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc ; 8 A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research. Food store availability and neighborhood charac teristics in the United States. Prev Med ;44 3 Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut. Health Aff Millwood ;27 5 Gartin M. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Para guay. Am J Hum Biol ;24 3 Validation of an adapted ver sion of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores NEMS S in an urban area of Brazil. Curr Obes Rep ;3 4 Regional University of Blumenau. The effect of cocoa powder and subchronic exposure to classical music in Wistar rats behavior on an xiety evaluation tests and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. Ani mals from MG and CPMG groups showed the highest total horizontal locomotion and more time spent at the central area and reduced immobility time at the OF. We concluded that the treatment with this classical music sho wed mild anxiolytic activity. Both treatments cocoa and music improved serum antioxidant status, but the peri pheral activity of different serum enzymes was mainly improved by the cocoa powder. Key words: Cocoa powder, classical music, anxiety, elevated plus maze, open field, oxidative stress. Recibido: 07 11 Aceptado: 17 01 Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, asso ciated to ill being, discomfort, worry or fear of any defined or undefined future threat. Although it is a na tural reaction to stress, when it is excessive or out of pro portion to the stimulus, it is considered pathological 1. The occurrence of mental disorders, among them an xiety, have increased globally along the years. An amount of 16,3 trillion dollars is estimated to be spent on health problems associated to mental di sorders between the years of and 2. Additionally, aggravating this situation are the side effects of the drugs used to treat anxiety, such as: headache, nausea, blurred vision, tachycardia, dizziness, fainting, hypotension, hypertension, diarrhea, drowsiness, in somnia andv omiting 3. Faced with these challenges it is both, understanda ble and necessary, to broaden the range of treatment options or complement them, in areas such as phyto therapy, nutrition and diversified complementary the rapies 4. Some foods are of target interest and show good perspectives, but in order for them to be indicated for use, scientific comprobation is necessary. Cocoa powder, a sub product of the Theobroma cacao L. When it is not alkalized du ring processing it shows significant amounts of polyphenols like flavonoids, epicatechins, catechins, proanthocyanidins and quercetin derivatives, and methylxanthines like theobromine and caffeine 5. Due to its composition, it offers many applications, such as: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithromboge nic, fibrinolytic, immunomodulatory and antitumoral 6,7. Although still poorly explored, recent evidence has been found of the antidepressant and anxiolytic ef fects of cocoa. These were found in pre clinical studies through behavioral testing on animals 8 10 and more modestly on humans trials These effects were as sociated to cocoa's complex composition, but mostly due polyphenols. Music is a complementary therapy that has been used by humanity for thousands of years and scientific studies which indicate music as a therapeutic method for many conditions have emerged 4. Many studies describe that music causes metabolic alterations to the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis HPA , the sympathetic nervous system and the im mune system, besides reducing anxiety 12, Clas sical music, particularly by Mozart, has demonstrated effects on cortisol levels 14,15 , modulation of the HPA axis as well as the immune system 16 in hu mans. Experimental studies with the exposure to music from this particular composer showed reduction of hypertension 17 and anxiety isolatedly in rodents 18 and also when combined with medication Both, human and animal organisms, respond to physical and psychological stress through behavioral and physiological defenses Growing evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays causal role in the development of anxious behavior on rats 20 23 and due to the fact that cocoa has conferred antioxidant ef fects and as well as classical music it may work as a potential anxiolytic, this study sought toverify the ef fects of an adjoint intervention of these two factors on Wistar rats behavior when submitted to the elevated plus maze EPM and also to the open field OF tests, anxiety evaluation models, associating it to the peripheral antioxidant defense. After arrival in thevivarium of the labora tory, these animals were housed individually in opaque plastic cage 0. The room was visited on an average of once every 2 or 3 days for cleaning cages, and to provide food and water. The animals were acclimated to the animal housing facilities for 1 week before the experi ments began. During the intervention period, which lasted 15 days, the animals of CPG and CPMG groups received once a day, between and PM daily, non alkalized cocoa powder solubili zed in water by oral gavage. Each animal re ceived 2. The solution contains about 8. The CG and MG ani mal groups received 2. The chemical composition of both so lutions is presented in Table 1. Corn starch was used as placebo to ensure that the infusion time gavage was the same for control and treatment groups, giving density to the solution. This was an important consi deration as the gavage procedure can generate cause stress to the animals. Mozart's music Serenade N. The speaker had a fre quency range of Hz and the music room had a sound level of 65 75 dB. The silent room where the animals of CG and CPG groups stayed had no music and its sound level was 50 dB ambient noise. The animals body weight was measured on the first and last day of the intervention and food consumption was measured three times a week on alternate days and then, the weekly average was calculated. On the last day of intervention all animals were in dividually subjected to the EPM and OF tests in a sound isolated room, during the light phase of the cycle between and PM. To minimize possible cir cadian influences, the experimental and control observations were alternated. The tests were con ducted under dim red light 44 lux. The apparatus consisted of two open arms 0. The height of the maze was 0. They were then individually placed on the central platform of the elevated plus maze facing an open arm. Risk assessment is a measure that accounts for the time spent head dipping i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are the entries into the open arms vs. The anxiety behavior in this test is triggered by the high of the maze which evoke a greater strength of fear. The fear induces an avoidancebehavior, which in turn makes the animals prefer the closed arms We also included etholo gically derived measures related to the defensive pat tern of risk assessment behavior, which has been shown to bevery sensitive to changes in anxiety 19, The OF consisted of a black uncovered circular box 0. Each rat was placed in the central area and allowed to freely explore the ap paratus for 5 min, being filmed during this time. Sub sequently we recorded the total ambulation time i. Time spent immobile i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are shorter horizontal locomotion number of cros sings ; greater time spent in the peripheral area; redu ced ambulation time; reduced central area ambulation time; and greater immobility time. Anxiolytic treat ments decrease the stress induced inhibition of explo ratory behavior Erythrocytes and plasma were prepared from wholeblood samples obtained from the rats. Wholeblood was collected and transferred to heparinized tubes for erythrocyte separation. Erythrocytes were was hed three times with cold saline solution 0. The supernatant was diluted in order to contain approximately 0. The results were expressed as nanomole of malon dialdehyde formed per milligram of protein. Catalase activity assay CAT was determined according Aebi method Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 disappea rance was continuously monitored with a spectropho tometer at nm for 90 seconds. Glutathione peroxidase activity assay GSH Px was determined by the method of Wendel 29 , with some modifications. Tert butylhy droperoxide was used as substrate. Nicotinamide ade nine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH disappearance was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm for 4 minutes. Su peroxide dismutase assay SOD was determined by the pyrogallol auto oxidation method, as described by Marklund The self oxidation of pyrogallol was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm. The specific activity was expressed as unit per mg of protein. Protein determination was performed by the method of Lowry et al. The variables were expressed as means and stan dard deviations. The determination of the differences between the experimental groups was performed using analysis ofv ariance ANOVA , two tailed food intake and body weight and one tailed other variables , with Tukey Kramer post test for parametric data or Krus kal Wallis test for non parametric data. The Normality of variable distribution was assessed by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Effects of treatment on body weight and food intake. No significant alterations were observed in body weight, percentage of gained weight and weekly food intake. The food intake of the first and second weeks of trial did not differ from each other data not shown. No statistical differences were observed between groups in the parameters analyzed in the EPM test. Effects of treatment on antioxidant serum activity. In this study, the cocoa treatment as sociated or not to classical music did not cause alterations in body weight gain or animal food intake. Regarding the EPM test, this study differs from one of our previous works using Mozart music in combina tion with medication simvastatin , in which we observed an adjuvant effect of the interventions in reducing anxiety A recent study published in pertinent lite rature may explain such differences in these results. Ac cording to Attoui et al. It is believed that as the animals in this present study were not exposed to stress stimuli, there was no hormonal dere gulation to be reverted by the treatment with music, if we consider this the mechanism of action. However, it is relevant to emphasize that there were significant dif ferences in the OF test variables; an anxiety behavior model with different peculiarities regarding action me chanisms. Therefore, the necessity of applying not only one paradigm to evaluate stress or emotional anxiety to behavior studies is reinforced. Either as a separate treatment or associated with cocoa powder, the classical music treatment promoted an increase in the total horizontal locomotion in the OF and also the horizontal peripheral locomotion, but did not affect the time spent in this region. It is also impor tant to highlight that both treatments significantly in creased the time spent in the central area of the field, and also the percentage of time spent in this area when compared to total ambulation time, which represents a rupture in the natural tendency of the rodents of moving to the peripheral area Taking into account the results seen in the OF test and that we saw no differences in the animals behavior at the EPM, it is possible to indicate a mild anxiolytic effect associated with an exploratory activity stimula tion, because as said before, anxiolytic treatments de crease the stress induced inhibition of exploratory behavior at the OF It is believed that this effect may be attributed mainly to classical music exposition, considering the results from CPMG and MG groups were similar, with exception to the total ambulation time higher than the control group only in the associa ted treatment of cocoa powder and classical music. There isn't a consensus regarding the appreciation of music by animals, however this determination is not necessary, taking into account that many mechanisms used to test its effect on anxiety and stress have already been reported in the literature. Mozart's music increases dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter synthesis in thebrain. This is due to its high frequency accentuated sounds a Hz compared to other classical music composers, endowing rats with greater neu rophysiologic effects, confirmed through alterations in autonomic responses such as blood pressure Fur thermore, music also significantly activates various subcortical regions in humans, including the nucleus accumbens NAc, cerebral area that plays a significant role in processing of motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement , the ventral tegmental area VTA, processes reward when it receives dopamine and the hypothalamus region of thebrain that modulates autonomous responses such as cardiac frequency and bre athing, which alter when exposed to pleasant musical sounds. The elevated dopamine release in the vTA and NAc may be the neurochemical mechanism which can explain the reward feelings brought by music 16, The stimulus of structures such as the amygdala, cor tex, hippocampus and hypothalamus by music and the way thebrain's attention channels are affected by soo thing auditory stimuli in a significant and distractive manner are also mentioned explanations In addition to the previous consideration, a musical approach has shown regulatory effects on the HPA axis, by reducing the levels of ACTH in stressed rats 18 , reducing salivary cortisol levels in humans under pre competition stress 15 , as well as in the absence of stress Stress shows consequences such as high blood pressure and endocrinal responses which lead to specific hormone release and also the activation of the sympathetic nervous system for the "fight or flight" res ponse, besides an immune response, showing alteration in markers such as Immunoglobulin A, interleukins IL 1,6 and 10 The "fight or flight" response may be triggered by mental activity such as anxiety, stress, depression and feelings of despair. As previously dis cussed, music reduces stressful and anxious behavior 13 and it eases some of these systemic markings not only the ACTH and cortisol , with the reduction of epi nephrine and IL 6 and also the elevation of the growth hormone GH in humans. It appears that this effect of music concerns neuroendocrine immune routes of ac tion 12, In this study, besides the fact that the cocoa powder treatment did not provoke a statistically significant mo dification in animal behavior, it is important to note that, even not significantly different of control, it in creased the average of peripheral crossings as well as the total ambulation time reducing the animal's time of immobility. It is noteworthy that only the group which received cocoa powder in association with music de monstrated a greater total ambulation time compared to the control group. It is possible that there may havebeen an adjuvant effect between the treatments, which did not manifest statistically when they wereboth con ducted in an isolated manner. Pertaining the usage of the cocoa powder, aspects such as thebioavailability of the polyphenolic compounds, compromised by the food matrix, interaction with diet constituents, genetic factors, microbiota metabolism and the enzymatic ac tivity of the colon 7 should be taken into account, since the intake of the same dosage of total cocoa poly phenols caused behavioral alterations to rats in a previous study 8. The use of cocoa in anxiety reduction is supported by the literature invarious courses of action. Because its bioactive compounds are elevated, it is believed that there may be a synergetic action between the compo nents in the production of the anxiolytic effect Cocoa polyphenols havebeen associated to elevation in the monoaminergic neurotransmitters, similarly to antidepressant drugs. As evidenced in the work of Ya mada et al. Messaoudi et al. Such behavioral effect has been suggested to the quercetin flavonoid , for acting in a similar manner to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors drugs such as tricyclic antidepressant. Considering the existence of a direct correlation between oxidative stress and anxiety, thebrain's high susceptibility to oxidative stress and the already proven antioxidant efficiency of cocoa, it is possible that this may also be a way of reducing anxiety. Evidences that oxidative stress plays a causal role in the development of anxious behavior in rats has in creased, as well as the evidences that an antioxidant in tervention may revert such effects The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is different for an xious and non anxious rats in specific cerebral regions 20 , just as oxidative stress provokes an imbalance to antioxidant enzyme activity in the hippocampus asso ciated to the anxious behavior in rats during the OF test The same imbalance to the antioxidant defense was verified beyond the CNS, in many psychiatric di sorders among which, anxiety In spite of the fact that cocoa has an already established role in antioxidant defense improvement, the same does not apply to clas sical music, once no work in the literature has directly evaluated peripheral antioxidant activity with this tre atment, within our knowledge. In this study, all interventions, either associated or isolated, provoked a reduction to TBA RS levels in serum when compared to the control group Figure 2A. The efficiency with which the polyphenols are incor porated to LDL surface, thus increasing the resistance of this particle to both oxygen radicals and chelating transitional metal ions, is an exogenous antioxidant me chanism suggested for such compounds 6. Furthermore, endogenous antioxidant activity was also altered by treatments with cocoa powder and clas sical music, verified through the increase of enzymatic activity in serum. The average activity of the CAT enzyme was statistically superior only for the group treated with cocoa powder and concurrently exposed to music Figure 2B. Considering that the increase in CAT activity in our study was exclusive to the CPMG group, the existence of a common or synergetic mechanism between the interventions cocoa and classical music is probablebut still unex plored by science. In addition to this, the treatment with music reduced lipid peroxidation of the animals, pro bably through indirect mechanisms. In this study, we concluded that the cocoa powder, in the adopted dosage and used isolated, did not cause significant changes to animal behavior. The treatment with classical music by itself did demonstrate a mild anxiolytic effect. Both treatments cocoa powder and classical music improved the serum antioxidant status. This field of work needs further investigation in order to investi gate the correlation between oxidative stress and an xiety. A larger dose of cocoa is recommended in order to consider thebioavailability of the polyphenolic com pounds in the food matrix. Morebehavioral tests and also verification of antioxidant activity in structures of the central nervous system are recommended. Transtornos de ansiedade. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. World Health Organization [internet]. Mental health ac tion plan Accessed 17 May Bras J Health. Am J Psychiatry. The effect of alkalization on thebioactive and flavor related components in commercial cocoa powder. J Food Compost Anal. The J Nutr. Review: Health Effects of Cocoa Flavonoids. Food Sci Technol Int. Antidepressant like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic ex tract in Wistar Unilever rats. Nutr Neurosci. Flavonoides como estrategia terapéutica en neurodegeneración: hallazgos y retos. J Nutr Biochem. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomi zed, placebo controlled trial. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Buenos Aires. Ciudad con migrantes. Sexualidades migrantes. La revolución de las mariposas. Infomes y testimonios. Debates en la cultura argentina 3. Se trata de nosotras. Género, esclavitud y tortura. Protocolo Organizaciones Populares. Violencia contra las mujeres en relaciones de pareja [violencia sexual] Argentina Pixel Laqueur, Thomas Sexo solitario. Cómo prevenir e intervenir en situaciones de acoso escolar Argentina Paidós AA. Volumen I Argentina Peek a boo Nachón. Color pastel. Fanzine de poesía. Poesía gay de Buenos Aires. El maestro de las telenovelas que revolucionó la educación sentimental de un país Argentina Sudamericana Malva Mi recordatorio. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Buenos Aires. Ciudad con migrantes. Algunos rasgos del TLP pueden incluso solaparse con esos mismos trastornos, complicando una evaluación diagnóstica diferencial. La situación de un borderline supone una marcada labilidad y reactividad emocional a la que se suele denominar desregulación emocional. Hay un debate sobre la relación entre el trastorno bipolar y el TLP. Si se ve la hipersensibilidad y la impulsividad de los afectados de TDAH como rasgos de origen genético, entonces todas esas características son correspondientes a las de los del TLP. La primera diferencia significativa es la mayor prevalencia en mujeres que en hombres. Al ser tan llamativa, ha generado todo tipo de investigaciones. Existen dos opciones para explicar esta diferencia. La segunda es que realmente existen diferencias sociales o biológicas. Sin embargo, algunos estudios epidemiológicos señalan que el curso del trastorno suele presentar diferencias características de género. Se ha dicho que probablemente no existe un trastorno mental que haya suscitado tanta literatura, aunque muy poca de ella se basa en investigación empírica. Un rasgo especial del TLP es que puede manifestarse con distintas tipologías. Volkan y Branch ven la personalidad borderline como una escala. En general hay un alto grado de comorbididad entre estos pacientes. Con respecto al TLP esto quiere decir que las clasificaciones actuales del CIE y el DSM , como ya se ha dicho, existen solo en el papel y no suelen aplicarse en la investigación actual. Se orientan hacia otros trastornos de la personalidad, distinguiéndose, no obstante, de la neurosis y la psicosis. Esta clasificación se amplió al incluirse el modelo de Stone El factor ofensivo se atribuye primariamente a abusos físicos graves que sufrieron los afectados. El factor pasivo se atribuye al abuso sexual primario. Aquí la estructura del Yo es por lo menos lo suficientemente estable como para que el síntoma central se transforme en un miedo indefinido que se manifiesta abiertamente. Supone que algunas afecciones suelen aparecer conjuntamente con el TLP. Por tanto, se necesita estudios a largo plazo y no siempre se puede registrar el dato claramente. También se debe diferenciar de las depresiones reactivas, que surgen como respuesta a grandes cambios ambientales p. Estas formas de depresión se pueden dar individualmente o ambas conjuntamente con el TLP en diferentes grados. En tales casos la capacidad para la integración social, en particular en la vida profesional, encuentra dificultades extremas. En cualquier caso se encuentran en muchos estudios similitudes entre las dos patologías. El TLP es un trastorno de inicio temprano y de curso crónico. Se puede manifestar ya en las primeras etapas de la infancia, en la adolescencia o en el inicio de la edad adulta. De cualquier forma ha de manifestarse antes de los 25 años. Los años de mayor prevalencia del trastorno suele ser entre los 20 años y los 35 años, justo en el periodo en que el individuo tiene que hacerse adulto e independiente y marcarse una línea de vida y unas metas. Se ha visto que al mismo tiempo que van apareciendo los primeros síntomas, se registran alteraciones en la maduración cerebral. El pronóstico en el TLP viene condicionado por la edad de aparición de los primeros síntomas, la intensidad de los mismos y la presencia de ciertas conductas. Existen modelos de predicción de la evolución de los pacientes sometidos a terapia durante dos años valorando la psicopatología de base, presencia de traumas en la infancia y estabilidad de las relaciones actuales. Los datos indican que un porcentaje substancial de las personas diagnosticadas de TLP pueden conseguir la remisión incluso en un año o dos. Por el contrario, los pacientes TLP que mantienen unos vínculos sociales mínimos, cuentan con la estrecha contención familiar. El tratamiento del trastorno debe tener en cuenta la complejidad intrínseca de la enfermedad. Esta decisión se basa principalmente en el riesgo de suicidio o autolesiones, así como en manifestaciones lo suficientemente severas para interferir con la vida diaria del paciente en su entorno. Otro asunto es el elevado nivel de comorbilidades y situaciones individuales, por lo que en el tratamiento es esencial la flexibilidad. Dado el doble componente del trastorno, biológico y ambiental, el tratamiento debe abordar ambos capítulos. Por una parte se debe tratar las vulnerabilidades biológicas y la desregulación en la fisiología de los neurotransmisores que se manifiestan en: síntomas de desregulación afectiva, síntomas de discontrol impulsivo-conductual y síntomas cognitivos- perceptuales. La medicación ayuda a aliviar la sintomatología en los periodos de descompensación aguda, así como los trastornos comórbidos. Su meta es tratar los conflictos intrapsíquicos, las defensas, el progreso en el desarrollo de la personalidad y sus bloqueos, la adaptabilidad, en especial en cuanto al establecimiento de vínculos afectivos seguros y las competencias para el manejo de estresantes psicosociales. Los estudios efectuados hasta la fecha no proporcionan evidencia determinante sobre la eficacia de las mismas, pero sugieren que las personas diagnosticadas de TLP pueden beneficiarse en al menos alguna de las medidas resultantes. La psicoterapia habitualmente puede estar dirigida a individuos o grupos. En los años se estableció un nuevo tratamiento psicosocial para el TLP, llamado terapia dialéctica conductual TDC , originalmente desarrollada como una intervención para pacientes con conductas suicidas. Esta terapia se deriva de las técnicas cognitivo-conductuales y se puede considerar una forma de terapia cognitivo-conductual pero se centra en el intercambio y la negociación entre el terapeuta y el cliente, entre lo racional y lo emocional y entre la aceptación y el cambio de ahí el nombre de dialéctica. Los objetivos de la terapia son acordados, aunque se priorizan los temas de autolesiones. La TDC se puede fundamentar en la teoría biosocial de la función de la personalidad en la cual el TLP se ve como un trastorno biológico de la regulación emocional en un entorno social experimentado como una invalidación por el paciente borderline. La terapia cognitivo-analítica fue desarrollada por Anthony Ryle. Combina planteamientos cognitivos y psicoanalíticos y ha sido adaptado para el uso con individuos con TLP con resultados en ambos sentidos. Por ello es imprescindible que todo intento de tratamiento deba ser entendido desde una dualidad procesual interactiva de persona a persona, con lo cual se exigiría la inclusión del analista como variable imposible de valorar como alguien sujeto a estatus, rutina o presunción. Resulta importante valorar las controversias suscitadas sobre la rigidez en los límites personales del analista, cómo deben tratarse los momentos de crisis y la eficacia de la confrontación tanto a nivel cuantitativo como cualitativo. Otro elemento discordante es la larga duración del tratamiento psicoanalítico, resultando innecesario ante tratamientos igualmente eficaces en menor tiempo. La psicoterapia enfocada a la transferencia PET es una forma de terapia psicoanalítica que data de los años 60 enraizada en los conceptos de Otto Kernberg sobre el TLP y su estructura subyacente estructura de la personalidad borderline. Éste trabaja en la sesión en la relación paciente-terapeuta. La psicoterapia basada en la mentalización MBT o TBM , desarrollada por Peter Fonagy y Antony Bateman, se basa en la asunción de que los afectados por el trastorno límite de la personalidad tienen una distorsión del apego debido a problemas en las relaciones paterno-filiales en la infancia. Se piensa que el fracaso en la adquisición de una adecuada mentalización es la base de los problemas con el control de los impulsos en los pacientes con TLP, así como de su inestabilidad emocional y sus dificultades para mantener relaciones íntimas. La terapia familiar o la psicoeducación familiar puede ayudar a educar a los miembros de la familia en relación al TLP, mejorando la comunicación familiar y la resolución de problemas en su seno, proporcionando apoyo a los miembros de la familia para abordar la enfermedad de su ser querido. Hay dos patrones de implicación familiar que puede ayudar a los clínicos a planear intervenciones desde la familia: la sobreimplicación y la negligencia. Los pacientes de TLP que se encuentran en familias sobreimplicadas tienen que luchar a menudo con temas de dependencia, negación o por enfado de los padres. Si la afección comórbida afectiva consiste principalmente en ansiedad, se pueden prescribir benzodiacepinas. Para desregulaciones y alteraciones de la conducta y de la percepción se emplean los neurolépticos. En algunos casos especialmente severos en los que existe comorbilidad con trastornos del eje I, en especial depresión grave refractaria a la farmacoterapia, se puede llegar a emplear la terapia electroconvulsiva..

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Izaguirre, C. Macías editoras. Crecimiento y MaduraciónFísica. Editorial MédicaPanamericana. Caracaspp. Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability. EducPsycholMeas; 33 3 : Pepe MS. Oxford University Press. Oxford Statistical Science Series.

Maduración temprana: factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad? Arch Latinoam Nutr; 49 1 : Comparing three body mass index Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

Malina R. Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press. Washington, DCpp: The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y. Am J Clinical Nutr ; 59 4 Body mass index variations: Centiles from birth to 87 years. Europ Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual Clin Nutr ; 45 1 Arch Venez Puer Pediatr ; 75 2 Nutr Hosp ; 27 1 Moringa oleifera: Revisión sobre aplicaciones y usos en alimentos.

Universidad de Murcia, España. Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Las diferentes estructuras de la planta hoja, raíz, corteza, flores, vainas La literatura científica recoge numerosos Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual saludables de las diferentes partes de la moringa tales como efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio o bactericida entre otros. En el sector de la panadería el objetivo suele ser el enriquecimiento nutricional del alimento.

Moringa oleifera : A review of food ap plications. Moringa oleifera is a Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual native to certain read more gions Asia and Africa, adaptable to territories of hot weather and low precipitation rates.

In some areas diffe rent parts of the tree leaves, roots, bark, flowers, pods These structures have also a high nutritional value vita mins, minerals and click the following article amino acids among others giving an important potential role in the prevention of malnutrition. Article source scientific literature describes many sa lutary effects of the different parts of the moringa such as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory or bactericide, among others.

With the aim of bringing the properties of moringa to consumers, source few studies have been developed with different foods, mainly meat and bread, in which the moringa is incorporated as an ingredient leaf, seed, ex tracts, etc.

In meat products it is used as a preservative and antioxidant additive with Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual good results without affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product.

In the field of bakery the objective is usually as nutritional fortification. In these cases the sensory characteristics are variable depending on the dose used and the product under study bread, cookies, etc. The food industry has an inte resting challenge ahead: the incorporation of moringa as a natural ingredient, as a substituting different classical preservatives and antioxidant and at the same time prepa ring food commodities, such as bread, with high nutritio nal value, ideal for certain population groups in risk of malnutrition.

Key Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual Moringa oleiferaantioxidant, food, meat products, bread. Recibe diferentes nombres, tales como Drums tick tree, Horse Radish tree o Ben oil tree 2.

Los motivos para esta gran variedad de funciones pueden ser debido a su alto poder nutritivo. Propiedades biológicas de la planta Moringa oleifera. Estudios in vivo de actividad antiinflamatorio y antioxidante.

Los efectos antiinflamatorios se deben principlamente a la gran cantidad de flavonoides presentes en la hoja de moringa, donde se han descrito hasta doce compuestos distintos, derivados de la quercitina y kaempferol 7. Minaiyan et al 8 investigaron la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto semillas de moringa en el tratamiento de colitis ulcerosa inducida.

También estudiaron el daño microscópico determinando la severidad y extensión de la inflamación y el daño de las criptas. El estudio se llevó a cabo con 54 ratas Wistar macho de entre g de peso divididas en nueve grupos. El grupo 3 de referencia recibió la inducción y tratamiento farmacológico prednisolona. El tiempo de ensayo fue de cinco días. Tumer et al 10 Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual el mecanismo por el cual las hojas de moringa ejercen su función antioxidante.

El extracto de las hojas se separó en dos fases, una rica en polifenoles y otra en isotiocianatos. Tras la adición del extracto y evaluación del mismo los autores observaron que la en fracción rica en polifenoles hubo una mayor actividad de la NAQO1 mientras que la fracción rica en isotiocianatos produjo mayor absorción de radicales de oxígeno.

De esta manera los autores explican que la actividad antioxidante de la hoja de moringa y su potencial terapéutico se debe, en parte, a la doble forma de actuación descrita. Vasanth et al 11 valoraron in vitro la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la corteza del tronco de la moringa. Se realizaron seis cultivos celulares: un control negativo sin exposición LPS referenciaun control positivo con exposición a LPS 1.

Waterman et al 12evidenciaron que, a nivel cromosómico, los isotiocianatos presentes en un concentrado de hojas frescas de moringa modulan la expresión génica para la liberación de sustancias pro inflamatorias. Los autores obtuvieron el extracto metanólico de las hojas de moringa, del cual separaron mediante un HPLC semipreparativa la fracción rica en isotiocianatos.

Se prepararon a su vez dos cultivos celulares, uno sin tratamiento ni exposición control negativo y otro con exposición y sin tratamiento control positivo. De esta forma valoraron la pertinencia del concentrado de hojas de moringa como producto see more uso alimentario para disminuir la inflamación vascular asociada a enfermedades crónicas.

Los autores analizaron los siguientes indicadores: glutatión reducido GSHactividad superóxido dismutasa SODactividad catalasa y actividad glutatión peroxidasa GP. Efecto en el tratamiento de la diabetes mallitus. Pimjai et al. Los autores concluyeron que dosis altas de polvo de hoja de moringa encapsulado 4 g incrementa significativamente la secreción de insulina, resultando un tratamiento potencial de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2.

Protector de tejidos en intoxicaciones por arsénico. Tras las 16 semanas de duración del experimento se evidencia en el grupo control positivo frente al control negativo el aumento de triglicéridos Este estudio demuestra la efectividad de la Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual de moringa en la reversión de los Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual causados por la intoxicación por arsénico.

Lamou et al. Los animales se sometieron a pruebas de resistencia de flotación con peso añadido y otras a resistencia sin peso. Tras el ejercicio también hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos tratados y el grupo control en los nive les sanguíneos de lactato De esta manera los au tores concluyen que el extracto acuoso de hoja de mo ringa tiene propiedades anti fatiga frente al ejercicio físico facilitando la movilización de los depósitos de grasa del organismo, retardando el agotamiento de las reservas de glucógeno y disminuyendo la acumulación de lactato y urea en sangre.

Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenesKlebsiella pneumoniaePseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E.

Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V.

El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2.

Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca.

Tras Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura.

Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma.

Https://doc-3.puzzle-games.website/wiki-2019-10-22.php al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores.

Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente continue reading al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan.

En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante.

Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1.

Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1.

Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2.

Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual

Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas.

A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen see more con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento.

De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5.

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En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas source 0.

En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Hacia el plan Fénix. Avon books Phelman, Shane Is it a choice? Getting in touch with your inner homo EE. Flying circus. D, Gogna. M, Valdés. Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, Pecheny. El mismo amor, los mismos derechos.

The ultimate lesbian short film festival min. El Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual de todos los deseos 81 min. Pido perdón. Itinerario outsider 04 y 06 marzo Palabra viva. Textos de escritoras y escritores desaparecidos y Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual del terrorismo de Estado. Experiencias del aborto voluntario en el relato de mujeres y varones.

Apuntes para la comprensión del fenómen migratorio dos copias. Sociabilidad, política, violencia y derechos. Recibido: Aceptado: Solomons, Odilia I. The dietary practices of diverse population groups, associated with the nutritional transition and the rapid demographic changes occurring globally require more attention to the food preferences of migrant groups such as Latinos living in the United States United States of America US.

This work aimed at the performance of an instrument utilized to measure availability of healthy food visit web page in Latino stores located in the town of Somerville, state of Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There was a general lack of healthy food options found when using the US survey, as well as a relatively narrow selection of fruits and vegetables.

As conclusion, it was found that the US NEMS S tended to identify a lower number of Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual food options, as compared to a larger number of similar options when a culturally appropriate survey was used. These findings illustrate a manner in which a culture specific instrument perform more appropriately than similar instruments adapted for other population groups, especially when the results are to be applied to support development of healthy food policies.

Este trabajo documenta los resultados de aplicar un instrumento para medir disponibilidad Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual alimentos saludables en tres tiendas latinas ubicadas en la ciudad de Somerville, estado de Massachusetts.

La metodología utilizada incluyó la aplicación de dos versiones: guatemalteca y EU de la Encuesta para Medir Ambiente Nutricional en Tiendas NEMS S, siglas en ingléspara evaluar la disponibilidad de alimentos saludables. Los datos se analizaron con estadísticas descriptivas. Estos hallazgos ilustran la importancia de utilizar instrumentos específicos para determinar disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, especialmente cuando los resultados se utilicen para apoyar el desarrollo de políticas alimentarias.

Xxxxnxxxx 2 Watch SEX Videos Xxxxx Free. Many studies describe that music causes metabolic alterations to the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis HPA , the sympathetic nervous system and the im mune system, besides reducing anxiety 12, Clas sical music, particularly by Mozart, has demonstrated effects on cortisol levels 14,15 , modulation of the HPA axis as well as the immune system 16 in hu mans. Experimental studies with the exposure to music from this particular composer showed reduction of hypertension 17 and anxiety isolatedly in rodents 18 and also when combined with medication Both, human and animal organisms, respond to physical and psychological stress through behavioral and physiological defenses Growing evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays causal role in the development of anxious behavior on rats 20 23 and due to the fact that cocoa has conferred antioxidant ef fects and as well as classical music it may work as a potential anxiolytic, this study sought toverify the ef fects of an adjoint intervention of these two factors on Wistar rats behavior when submitted to the elevated plus maze EPM and also to the open field OF tests, anxiety evaluation models, associating it to the peripheral antioxidant defense. After arrival in thevivarium of the labora tory, these animals were housed individually in opaque plastic cage 0. The room was visited on an average of once every 2 or 3 days for cleaning cages, and to provide food and water. The animals were acclimated to the animal housing facilities for 1 week before the experi ments began. During the intervention period, which lasted 15 days, the animals of CPG and CPMG groups received once a day, between and PM daily, non alkalized cocoa powder solubili zed in water by oral gavage. Each animal re ceived 2. The solution contains about 8. The CG and MG ani mal groups received 2. The chemical composition of both so lutions is presented in Table 1. Corn starch was used as placebo to ensure that the infusion time gavage was the same for control and treatment groups, giving density to the solution. This was an important consi deration as the gavage procedure can generate cause stress to the animals. Mozart's music Serenade N. The speaker had a fre quency range of Hz and the music room had a sound level of 65 75 dB. The silent room where the animals of CG and CPG groups stayed had no music and its sound level was 50 dB ambient noise. The animals body weight was measured on the first and last day of the intervention and food consumption was measured three times a week on alternate days and then, the weekly average was calculated. On the last day of intervention all animals were in dividually subjected to the EPM and OF tests in a sound isolated room, during the light phase of the cycle between and PM. To minimize possible cir cadian influences, the experimental and control observations were alternated. The tests were con ducted under dim red light 44 lux. The apparatus consisted of two open arms 0. The height of the maze was 0. They were then individually placed on the central platform of the elevated plus maze facing an open arm. Risk assessment is a measure that accounts for the time spent head dipping i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are the entries into the open arms vs. The anxiety behavior in this test is triggered by the high of the maze which evoke a greater strength of fear. The fear induces an avoidancebehavior, which in turn makes the animals prefer the closed arms We also included etholo gically derived measures related to the defensive pat tern of risk assessment behavior, which has been shown to bevery sensitive to changes in anxiety 19, The OF consisted of a black uncovered circular box 0. Each rat was placed in the central area and allowed to freely explore the ap paratus for 5 min, being filmed during this time. Sub sequently we recorded the total ambulation time i. Time spent immobile i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are shorter horizontal locomotion number of cros sings ; greater time spent in the peripheral area; redu ced ambulation time; reduced central area ambulation time; and greater immobility time. Anxiolytic treat ments decrease the stress induced inhibition of explo ratory behavior Erythrocytes and plasma were prepared from wholeblood samples obtained from the rats. Wholeblood was collected and transferred to heparinized tubes for erythrocyte separation. Erythrocytes were was hed three times with cold saline solution 0. The supernatant was diluted in order to contain approximately 0. The results were expressed as nanomole of malon dialdehyde formed per milligram of protein. Catalase activity assay CAT was determined according Aebi method Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 disappea rance was continuously monitored with a spectropho tometer at nm for 90 seconds. Glutathione peroxidase activity assay GSH Px was determined by the method of Wendel 29 , with some modifications. Tert butylhy droperoxide was used as substrate. Nicotinamide ade nine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH disappearance was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm for 4 minutes. Su peroxide dismutase assay SOD was determined by the pyrogallol auto oxidation method, as described by Marklund The self oxidation of pyrogallol was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm. The specific activity was expressed as unit per mg of protein. Protein determination was performed by the method of Lowry et al. The variables were expressed as means and stan dard deviations. The determination of the differences between the experimental groups was performed using analysis ofv ariance ANOVA , two tailed food intake and body weight and one tailed other variables , with Tukey Kramer post test for parametric data or Krus kal Wallis test for non parametric data. The Normality of variable distribution was assessed by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Effects of treatment on body weight and food intake. No significant alterations were observed in body weight, percentage of gained weight and weekly food intake. The food intake of the first and second weeks of trial did not differ from each other data not shown. No statistical differences were observed between groups in the parameters analyzed in the EPM test. Effects of treatment on antioxidant serum activity. In this study, the cocoa treatment as sociated or not to classical music did not cause alterations in body weight gain or animal food intake. Regarding the EPM test, this study differs from one of our previous works using Mozart music in combina tion with medication simvastatin , in which we observed an adjuvant effect of the interventions in reducing anxiety A recent study published in pertinent lite rature may explain such differences in these results. Ac cording to Attoui et al. It is believed that as the animals in this present study were not exposed to stress stimuli, there was no hormonal dere gulation to be reverted by the treatment with music, if we consider this the mechanism of action. However, it is relevant to emphasize that there were significant dif ferences in the OF test variables; an anxiety behavior model with different peculiarities regarding action me chanisms. Therefore, the necessity of applying not only one paradigm to evaluate stress or emotional anxiety to behavior studies is reinforced. Either as a separate treatment or associated with cocoa powder, the classical music treatment promoted an increase in the total horizontal locomotion in the OF and also the horizontal peripheral locomotion, but did not affect the time spent in this region. It is also impor tant to highlight that both treatments significantly in creased the time spent in the central area of the field, and also the percentage of time spent in this area when compared to total ambulation time, which represents a rupture in the natural tendency of the rodents of moving to the peripheral area Taking into account the results seen in the OF test and that we saw no differences in the animals behavior at the EPM, it is possible to indicate a mild anxiolytic effect associated with an exploratory activity stimula tion, because as said before, anxiolytic treatments de crease the stress induced inhibition of exploratory behavior at the OF It is believed that this effect may be attributed mainly to classical music exposition, considering the results from CPMG and MG groups were similar, with exception to the total ambulation time higher than the control group only in the associa ted treatment of cocoa powder and classical music. There isn't a consensus regarding the appreciation of music by animals, however this determination is not necessary, taking into account that many mechanisms used to test its effect on anxiety and stress have already been reported in the literature. Mozart's music increases dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter synthesis in thebrain. This is due to its high frequency accentuated sounds a Hz compared to other classical music composers, endowing rats with greater neu rophysiologic effects, confirmed through alterations in autonomic responses such as blood pressure Fur thermore, music also significantly activates various subcortical regions in humans, including the nucleus accumbens NAc, cerebral area that plays a significant role in processing of motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement , the ventral tegmental area VTA, processes reward when it receives dopamine and the hypothalamus region of thebrain that modulates autonomous responses such as cardiac frequency and bre athing, which alter when exposed to pleasant musical sounds. The elevated dopamine release in the vTA and NAc may be the neurochemical mechanism which can explain the reward feelings brought by music 16, The stimulus of structures such as the amygdala, cor tex, hippocampus and hypothalamus by music and the way thebrain's attention channels are affected by soo thing auditory stimuli in a significant and distractive manner are also mentioned explanations In addition to the previous consideration, a musical approach has shown regulatory effects on the HPA axis, by reducing the levels of ACTH in stressed rats 18 , reducing salivary cortisol levels in humans under pre competition stress 15 , as well as in the absence of stress Stress shows consequences such as high blood pressure and endocrinal responses which lead to specific hormone release and also the activation of the sympathetic nervous system for the "fight or flight" res ponse, besides an immune response, showing alteration in markers such as Immunoglobulin A, interleukins IL 1,6 and 10 The "fight or flight" response may be triggered by mental activity such as anxiety, stress, depression and feelings of despair. As previously dis cussed, music reduces stressful and anxious behavior 13 and it eases some of these systemic markings not only the ACTH and cortisol , with the reduction of epi nephrine and IL 6 and also the elevation of the growth hormone GH in humans. It appears that this effect of music concerns neuroendocrine immune routes of ac tion 12, In this study, besides the fact that the cocoa powder treatment did not provoke a statistically significant mo dification in animal behavior, it is important to note that, even not significantly different of control, it in creased the average of peripheral crossings as well as the total ambulation time reducing the animal's time of immobility. It is noteworthy that only the group which received cocoa powder in association with music de monstrated a greater total ambulation time compared to the control group. It is possible that there may havebeen an adjuvant effect between the treatments, which did not manifest statistically when they wereboth con ducted in an isolated manner. Pertaining the usage of the cocoa powder, aspects such as thebioavailability of the polyphenolic compounds, compromised by the food matrix, interaction with diet constituents, genetic factors, microbiota metabolism and the enzymatic ac tivity of the colon 7 should be taken into account, since the intake of the same dosage of total cocoa poly phenols caused behavioral alterations to rats in a previous study 8. The use of cocoa in anxiety reduction is supported by the literature invarious courses of action. Because its bioactive compounds are elevated, it is believed that there may be a synergetic action between the compo nents in the production of the anxiolytic effect Cocoa polyphenols havebeen associated to elevation in the monoaminergic neurotransmitters, similarly to antidepressant drugs. As evidenced in the work of Ya mada et al. Messaoudi et al. Such behavioral effect has been suggested to the quercetin flavonoid , for acting in a similar manner to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors drugs such as tricyclic antidepressant. Considering the existence of a direct correlation between oxidative stress and anxiety, thebrain's high susceptibility to oxidative stress and the already proven antioxidant efficiency of cocoa, it is possible that this may also be a way of reducing anxiety. Evidences that oxidative stress plays a causal role in the development of anxious behavior in rats has in creased, as well as the evidences that an antioxidant in tervention may revert such effects The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is different for an xious and non anxious rats in specific cerebral regions 20 , just as oxidative stress provokes an imbalance to antioxidant enzyme activity in the hippocampus asso ciated to the anxious behavior in rats during the OF test The same imbalance to the antioxidant defense was verified beyond the CNS, in many psychiatric di sorders among which, anxiety In spite of the fact that cocoa has an already established role in antioxidant defense improvement, the same does not apply to clas sical music, once no work in the literature has directly evaluated peripheral antioxidant activity with this tre atment, within our knowledge. In this study, all interventions, either associated or isolated, provoked a reduction to TBA RS levels in serum when compared to the control group Figure 2A. The efficiency with which the polyphenols are incor porated to LDL surface, thus increasing the resistance of this particle to both oxygen radicals and chelating transitional metal ions, is an exogenous antioxidant me chanism suggested for such compounds 6. Furthermore, endogenous antioxidant activity was also altered by treatments with cocoa powder and clas sical music, verified through the increase of enzymatic activity in serum. The average activity of the CAT enzyme was statistically superior only for the group treated with cocoa powder and concurrently exposed to music Figure 2B. Considering that the increase in CAT activity in our study was exclusive to the CPMG group, the existence of a common or synergetic mechanism between the interventions cocoa and classical music is probablebut still unex plored by science. In addition to this, the treatment with music reduced lipid peroxidation of the animals, pro bably through indirect mechanisms. In this study, we concluded that the cocoa powder, in the adopted dosage and used isolated, did not cause significant changes to animal behavior. The treatment with classical music by itself did demonstrate a mild anxiolytic effect. Both treatments cocoa powder and classical music improved the serum antioxidant status. This field of work needs further investigation in order to investi gate the correlation between oxidative stress and an xiety. A larger dose of cocoa is recommended in order to consider thebioavailability of the polyphenolic com pounds in the food matrix. Morebehavioral tests and also verification of antioxidant activity in structures of the central nervous system are recommended. Transtornos de ansiedade. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. World Health Organization [internet]. Mental health ac tion plan Accessed 17 May Bras J Health. Am J Psychiatry. The effect of alkalization on thebioactive and flavor related components in commercial cocoa powder. J Food Compost Anal. The J Nutr. Review: Health Effects of Cocoa Flavonoids. Food Sci Technol Int. Antidepressant like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic ex tract in Wistar Unilever rats. Nutr Neurosci. Flavonoides como estrategia terapéutica en neurodegeneración: hallazgos y retos. J Nutr Biochem. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomi zed, placebo controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. The impact of music on metabolism. Yehuda N. Music and Stress. J Adult Dev. J Music Ther. Overture for growth hormone: requiem for in terleukin 6?. Crit Care Med. Akiyama K, Sutoo D. Effect of different frequencies of music on blood pressure regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. Middle East Journal of Scien tific Research. Adjuvant effects of classical music on simvastatin induced reduction of anxiety but not ob ject recognition memory in rats. Psychol Neurosci. Glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reduc tase 1 regulate anxiety in mice. Nature ; 6. Oxidative stress in the hippocampus, anxiety likebehavior and decreased locomotory and exploratory ac tivity of adult rats: effects of sub acutev itamin A sup plementation at therapeutic doses. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidencebase and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 11 6 : Moderate treadmill exercise prev ents oxidative stress induced anxiety likebehavior in rats. Behav Brain Res. Prut I, Belzung C. The open field as a paradigm to me asure the effects of drugs on anxiety likebehaviors: a review. Eur J Pharmacol. J Neurosci Methods. Ethological and temporal analyses of anxiety likebehavior: the elevated plus maze model 20 years on. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. Aebi H. Catalase inv itro. Methods in enzymology. Wendel A. Glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol. Marklund SL. Direct assay of superoxide dismutase with potassium superoxide. In: Greenwald RA. Hand book of methods for oxygen radical research. Pro tein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. Menonv , Levitin DJ. The rewards of music listening: response and physiological connectivity of the meso limbic system. Cocoa enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats. Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal stress axis indu ces cellular oxidative stress. Front Neurosci. Acessed 07 June Crescimento alcançado e estado nutricional de escolares. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Universidade Paulista. O aumento da prevalência do excesso de peso é observado em todas as idades, inclusive nos países em desenvolvimento. Attained growth and nutritional status of schoolchildren. The increasing prevalence of obesity is oc curring in all ages, including in developing countries. The objective was to evaluate the achieved growth and nutritio nal status of two groups of schoolchildren from public scho ols: one at the beginning of school age and another in the transition to adolescence. The analysis of sample with children, divided into two groups according to the age, a group of 6 and 7 years G1 and the other with 9 and 10 years G2 , from the public elementary schools of Floriano polis. Measures of central ten dency, dispersion and proportions based data analysis. The results were: the average age of G1 and G2 was respectively of 6. The z score of BMI dis tribution showed a deviation to the right, with an average of 0. In con clusion, the schoolchildren showed in appropriate height growth concomitantly to the absence of malnutrition and a very high prevalence of excess weight, which can re present a late stage of Nutritional Transition. Key words: Nutritional status, growth, children, students, obesity, nutritional transition. O excesso de peso na infância vem aumentando, tanto em países desenvolvidos quanto em desenvolvi mento, nos diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. Estima se que, no mundo, mais de 22 milhões de crianças menores de cinco anos sejam obesas, e que uma em cada dez crianças tenha excesso de peso 3. A obesidade infantil é um importante fator de risco para a obesidade na idade adulta, e as crianças obesas tendem a ser mais altas do que seus pares com peso normal. A coleta de dados ocorreu no pri meiro semestre do ano letivo de e foi realizada nas próprias escolas. A amostragem foi realizada por conglomerados, de maneira probabilística e aleatória, a partir da listagem das classes dos escolares. As classes unidade amostral foram sorteadas de maneira sequencial até que o lote amostral estimado de crianças para cada idade e sexo estivesse completo. Os escolares foram pesados com mínimo de roupa possí vel somente com calça e camiseta e descalços, sendo posicionados em pé sobre a plataforma da balança com o peso do corpo igualmente distribuído entre os pés, os braços caídos ao longo do corpo e olhando para frente Após posicionar o escolar firmemente, deslocou-se a haste móvel do estadiômetro até a parte superior da cabeça e, a medida foi registrada em milímetro Os valores mensurados de peso e estatura foram transformados em escore z, com base nos valores do referencial da OMS de Foram excluídas 4 crianças: 2 postadoras de síndrome genético, uma com hipotireiodismo e uma nefropata. Tabela 1. Figura 2. Quanto ao crescimento estatural alcançado, os es colares aos 6 anos de idade, apresen tam uma estatura adequada, inclusive em média tendendo a ser superior à proposta pelo referencial da OMS. Esta tendência de crescimento ade quado é a mesma inclusive entre os escolares mais velhos, próximos da idade de início da puberdade Com resultados diferentes, Salomons et al. A obesidade grave aparece com uma prevalência muito elevada quando comparada ao esperado pelo referencial. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6. We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10 , including their food preferences. Despite the significance of culture in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, Hondurans and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States. The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge by assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts. Researchers believed that the conduct of the GUA NEMS S would result in a more thorough analysis of the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in stores in Latino communities in the US be cause the items on the survey would match those being sold in these culturally specific stores. The primary objective of this study was to test the GUA NEMS S to examine the food environment in a convenient, small sample of Latino stores, located in East Somerville, in which there is a rapidly growing Latino population, primarily of Central American origin. Secondarily, researchers also utilized the NEMS S surveys to assess the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino stores. Through enumeration of the study area Eastern Massachusetts , researchers selected the city of East Somerville, for its urban location and large Latino population, particularly recent migrants of Central American origins. A list of food outlets was compiled from a previous study conducted in the area 12 and from the Somerville census data. This study focused only on grocery stores. After the creation of an initial list, where 8 stores were identified, researchers visited the study area to narrow the store selection and to obtain permission from storeowners. Food outlets were categorized using the system described in the NEMS online training The local Institutional Review Board approved this study, and owners or managers of the Latino stores gave in formed consent. Finally, researchers created store layouts of the items sold in the three Latino stores and diagramed the floor plans. NEMS S was the tool used to quantify the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino grocery stores of study. This new survey was pilot tested in stores in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and proved ac curate as a modification for items included in the Guatemalan diet The categories include: milk, fruit, vegetables each item. Within the categories, the individual items added to the Guatemala survey were papaya, pineapple, and plums for fruit, and green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoysquash, radishes and avocados for vegetables. These items were chosen to reflect the Guatemalan diet. Fruit and vegetable items were all considered healthy food options, and each additional category had regular and healthy options e. Pearson Chi Square tests were used to undertake four inquiries: 1. Inter survey comparison of the 29 common items: areas of interest were availability of healthier options, fruit, and vegetable items in the three Latino stores; 2. The stores were small, with only one or two cash registers. All three stores had sections for many of the same items found in larger stores and supermarkets. Many of the sections, however, were limited or lacking certain items. There were some unique properties to the stores. A lack of price labeling on the majority of food items was common to all three stores. Thus, the presence or absence of each of these items on the store shelves was identically reported by both raters for all three stores. Focusing on the non produce items Table 2 , all three stores had the following regular versions of index items: milk, baked goods, soda, juice, chips, and bread. Two out of three stores had skim milk, low sugar cereal, and whole wheat bread, on the healthier side, and regularly sweetened breakfast cereal. Only one store had frozen dinners and low fat baked goods available. Raters never found healthier versions of chips baked or frozen dinners low fat , nor were ground beef or hotdogs found in either regular or healthier format. Focusing on the specific avai lability of the healthier options, a first examination of the core items was done Table 2. For external comparability, a comparison of the core list of the 9 non produce items with soda and juice now constituting a single category of beverages was done across sites. The cumulative availability in Store 1 was By Chi square analysis, the differential availability, considering all 29 elements of the U. Four items in two contrast pairings i. All stores had both the healthier and re gular option for black beans. Conversely, neither skim nor whole milk in the boxed presentation was found in any store visited. Nine items were added to the GUA NEMS S, including three fruits: papaya, pineapple and plums, and six vegetables: green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoy, radish and avocado Table 3. Store 1 had none of the additional fruits. Store 2 had two of the three additional fruits and Store 3 had all three additional fruits Table 3. With regard to the additional vegetable items, Store 1 had two of the six items; Stores 2 and 3 both had four of the six items Table 3. Data was normalized by expressing them as the cumulative percentage availability from each separate origin. Overall, the percentage availability of fruits in the three stores was In summary, two of the three stores had at least one of the three added fruits available; two of the three stores had at least two of the six added vegetables available. All stores had canned black beans available. Of the three published studies that reported the instrument performance of the NEMS S, the inter reliability determined by kappa had range of 0. Com pared to these previous studies, the performance of the GUA NEMS S was consistent or exceeded that of the previous studies who have reported statistics on instrument performance. The high inter rater concordance between NEMS S raters could be in part due to a couple of favorable conditions. This allowed raters to thoroughly conduct the surveys instead of furtively scurrying to collect the data. Although desirable, these conditions are not characteristic of grocery stores, so future NEMS S raters should precede with caution. Rimkus et al aptly note that in study where raters are in the same supermarket simultaneously collecting data low inter rater reliability is unlikely given that both raters are exposed to the same supermarket environment at the same time Results indicate a range of availability of healthy food items between the three stores. Although located in the same area, and providing their services to the same population, it was noticed that Store 1 was poorly stocked for healthy items, whereas Stores 2 and 3 were better stocked with Store 3 having a slight advantage. To date, there are few studies that report the availability of each US NEMS S item in detail rather than a composite healthy food score 16, When com pared to these studies, there was substantially lower availability of baked chips, low fat baked goods, low fat beef, low fat hot dogs and any type of fruit. It becomes evident in appreciating the degree of homology 29 of 40 items in common across the instruments and the imbalance in number of items added to the GUA NEMS S, that no strict comparison of performance of the two versions of the instruments can be made. This would require further development of comparably sized listings in which the availability of foods culturally preferred over the US options are substituted for some of those of the dominant culture in the US NEMS S. This new survey still needs to be developed. However, the relative performance of the GUA NEMS S can be examined by looking at the sale of certain milk, beans, fruits and vegetables with a certain Latino affinity, in addition to those that are reflective of the US culture. Across stores, the number of healthy items identified as available increased in the three stores: in Store 1 9 vs. In their review of the food environment literature, Anderson Steeves and coworkers identified as a main gap the paucity of studies in di verse settings, especially within developing countries One study in Paraguay modified the NEMS S to study the Paraguayan food environment and found that healthy bread and dairy options were limited Mar tins et al also modified the NEMS S to study food environments in Brazil by expanding upon the degree of food processing and its association with obesity The comparisons between the work reported here and these studies are limited, but highlight the importance of designing and adopting survey methods to study food environments. The major strength of this study is the theme of availability of healthy food options in the context of acculturation occurring in migrant communities with established elements of the US society. While neither of them, however, was a native speaker of Spanish nonpart of the Latino community, the storeowners and store personnel, however, were sufficiently bilingual to exclude linguistic communication barriers as a problem in the study. The orthodox NEMS S protocol calls for making the observations, when possible, without alerting the store personnel to the inspection. Under the study circumstances, however, it was considered necessary and appropriate to establish full transparency and obtain au theorization from the store owners. The achieved high inter rater scores may derive, in part, from the relaxed conditions in the inspection, without the distraction of the furtive nature of an unannounced survey. Moreover, the small overall number of items in the lists and their numerical as symmetry, with 29 items of established interest to the general US population and 40 of presumed relevance for the Latinos resident in the US, presented a problem in choice of a statistical approach for a strict parallel comparison across the instruments. The results of this study highlight the importance of attending to the cultural characteristics of the diverse population groups that are more inclined to do their food shopping in small, ethnic stores such as those frequented by Latinos. In the middle of the current epidemic of obesity and non communicable diseases associated with eating pat terns, it is needed to encourage and support owners of Latino stores to offer more ethnic specific healthy options of the traditional Latino food products. Additionally, in the future, a second generation of culturally sensitive NESM S, that substitutes foods of a more tropical and Central American origin in the listing, rather than simply adding them on, will need to be developed and tested in a similar context and paradigm as the one that gave the cultural framework to this study. Obesity and the food environment: dietary energy density and diet costs. Am J Prev Med ;27 3 Desig ned for disease: the link between local food environ ments and obesity and diabetes. Drewnowski A, Rolls BJ. How to modify the food en vironment. J Nutr ; 4 Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health ; Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement. Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot ;19 5 Asp EH. Factors affecting food decisions made by in dividual consumers. Food Policy ;24 2 Kumanyika SK. Environmental influences on child hood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav ;94 1 Italian ethnic identity and its relative impact on the consumption of conve nience and traditional foods. J Consum Mark ;15 2 Mankekar P. Ethnos ;67 1 A novel mobile phone application to assess nutrition environment measures in low and middle income countries. Food Nutr Bull ;35 3 Urban Bor derlands. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Updated Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form. J Nutr Educ Behav ;45 6 Am J Prev Med ;32 4 Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores. J Community Health ;35 3 Dietary acculturation: applications to nutrition rese arch and dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc ; 8 A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research. Food store availability and neighborhood charac teristics in the United States. Prev Med ;44 3 Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut. Health Aff Millwood ;27 5 Gartin M. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Para guay. Am J Hum Biol ;24 3 Validation of an adapted ver sion of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores NEMS S in an urban area of Brazil. Curr Obes Rep ;3 4 Regional University of Blumenau. The effect of cocoa powder and subchronic exposure to classical music in Wistar rats behavior on an xiety evaluation tests and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. Ani mals from MG and CPMG groups showed the highest total horizontal locomotion and more time spent at the central area and reduced immobility time at the OF. We concluded that the treatment with this classical music sho wed mild anxiolytic activity. Both treatments cocoa and music improved serum antioxidant status, but the peri pheral activity of different serum enzymes was mainly improved by the cocoa powder. Key words: Cocoa powder, classical music, anxiety, elevated plus maze, open field, oxidative stress. Recibido: 07 11 Aceptado: 17 01 Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, asso ciated to ill being, discomfort, worry or fear of any defined or undefined future threat. Although it is a na tural reaction to stress, when it is excessive or out of pro portion to the stimulus, it is considered pathological 1. The occurrence of mental disorders, among them an xiety, have increased globally along the years. An amount of 16,3 trillion dollars is estimated to be spent on health problems associated to mental di sorders between the years of and 2. Additionally, aggravating this situation are the side effects of the drugs used to treat anxiety, such as: headache, nausea, blurred vision, tachycardia, dizziness, fainting, hypotension, hypertension, diarrhea, drowsiness, in somnia andv omiting 3. Faced with these challenges it is both, understanda ble and necessary, to broaden the range of treatment options or complement them, in areas such as phyto therapy, nutrition and diversified complementary the rapies 4. Some foods are of target interest and show good perspectives, but in order for them to be indicated for use, scientific comprobation is necessary. Cocoa powder, a sub product of the Theobroma cacao L. When it is not alkalized du ring processing it shows significant amounts of polyphenols like flavonoids, epicatechins, catechins, proanthocyanidins and quercetin derivatives, and methylxanthines like theobromine and caffeine 5. Due to its composition, it offers many applications, such as: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithromboge nic, fibrinolytic, immunomodulatory and antitumoral 6,7. Although still poorly explored, recent evidence has been found of the antidepressant and anxiolytic ef fects of cocoa. These were found in pre clinical studies through behavioral testing on animals 8 10 and more modestly on humans trials These effects were as sociated to cocoa's complex composition, but mostly due polyphenols. Music is a complementary therapy that has been used by humanity for thousands of years and scientific studies which indicate music as a therapeutic method for many conditions have emerged 4. Many studies describe that music causes metabolic alterations to the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis HPA , the sympathetic nervous system and the im mune system, besides reducing anxiety 12, Clas sical music, particularly by Mozart, has demonstrated effects on cortisol levels 14,15 , modulation of the HPA axis as well as the immune system 16 in hu mans. Experimental studies with the exposure to music from this particular composer showed reduction of hypertension 17 and anxiety isolatedly in rodents 18 and also when combined with medication Both, human and animal organisms, respond to physical and psychological stress through behavioral and physiological defenses Growing evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays causal role in the development of anxious behavior on rats 20 23 and due to the fact that cocoa has conferred antioxidant ef fects and as well as classical music it may work as a potential anxiolytic, this study sought toverify the ef fects of an adjoint intervention of these two factors on Wistar rats behavior when submitted to the elevated plus maze EPM and also to the open field OF tests, anxiety evaluation models, associating it to the peripheral antioxidant defense. After arrival in thevivarium of the labora tory, these animals were housed individually in opaque plastic cage 0. The room was visited on an average of once every 2 or 3 days for cleaning cages, and to provide food and water. The animals were acclimated to the animal housing facilities for 1 week before the experi ments began. During the intervention period, which lasted 15 days, the animals of CPG and CPMG groups received once a day, between and PM daily, non alkalized cocoa powder solubili zed in water by oral gavage. Each animal re ceived 2. The solution contains about 8. The CG and MG ani mal groups received 2. The chemical composition of both so lutions is presented in Table 1. Corn starch was used as placebo to ensure that the infusion time gavage was the same for control and treatment groups, giving density to the solution. This was an important consi deration as the gavage procedure can generate cause stress to the animals. Mozart's music Serenade N. The speaker had a fre quency range of Hz and the music room had a sound level of 65 75 dB. The silent room where the animals of CG and CPG groups stayed had no music and its sound level was 50 dB ambient noise. The animals body weight was measured on the first and last day of the intervention and food consumption was measured three times a week on alternate days and then, the weekly average was calculated. On the last day of intervention all animals were in dividually subjected to the EPM and OF tests in a sound isolated room, during the light phase of the cycle between and PM. To minimize possible cir cadian influences, the experimental and control observations were alternated. The tests were con ducted under dim red light 44 lux. The apparatus consisted of two open arms 0. The height of the maze was 0. They were then individually placed on the central platform of the elevated plus maze facing an open arm. Risk assessment is a measure that accounts for the time spent head dipping i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are the entries into the open arms vs. The anxiety behavior in this test is triggered by the high of the maze which evoke a greater strength of fear. The fear induces an avoidancebehavior, which in turn makes the animals prefer the closed arms We also included etholo gically derived measures related to the defensive pat tern of risk assessment behavior, which has been shown to bevery sensitive to changes in anxiety 19, The OF consisted of a black uncovered circular box 0. Each rat was placed in the central area and allowed to freely explore the ap paratus for 5 min, being filmed during this time. Sub sequently we recorded the total ambulation time i. Time spent immobile i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are shorter horizontal locomotion number of cros sings ; greater time spent in the peripheral area; redu ced ambulation time; reduced central area ambulation time; and greater immobility time. Anxiolytic treat ments decrease the stress induced inhibition of explo ratory behavior Erythrocytes and plasma were prepared from wholeblood samples obtained from the rats. Wholeblood was collected and transferred to heparinized tubes for erythrocyte separation. Erythrocytes were was hed three times with cold saline solution 0. The supernatant was diluted in order to contain approximately 0. The results were expressed as nanomole of malon dialdehyde formed per milligram of protein. Catalase activity assay CAT was determined according Aebi method Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 disappea rance was continuously monitored with a spectropho tometer at nm for 90 seconds. Glutathione peroxidase activity assay GSH Px was determined by the method of Wendel 29 , with some modifications. Tert butylhy droperoxide was used as substrate. Nicotinamide ade nine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH disappearance was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm for 4 minutes. Su peroxide dismutase assay SOD was determined by the pyrogallol auto oxidation method, as described by Marklund The self oxidation of pyrogallol was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm. The specific activity was expressed as unit per mg of protein. Protein determination was performed by the method of Lowry et al. The variables were expressed as means and stan dard deviations. The determination of the differences between the experimental groups was performed using analysis ofv ariance ANOVA , two tailed food intake and body weight and one tailed other variables , with Tukey Kramer post test for parametric data or Krus kal Wallis test for non parametric data. The Normality of variable distribution was assessed by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Effects of treatment on body weight and food intake. No significant alterations were observed in body weight, percentage of gained weight and weekly food intake. The food intake of the first and second weeks of trial did not differ from each other data not shown. No statistical differences were observed between groups in the parameters analyzed in the EPM test. Effects of treatment on antioxidant serum activity. In this study, the cocoa treatment as sociated or not to classical music did not cause alterations in body weight gain or animal food intake. Murray, et al. Archives of General Psychiatry 63 7 : Rossiter, J. Milner febrero- marzo Contemporary Nurse 21 1 : Spinhoven, et al. June Archives of General Psychiatry 63 6 : Nysaeter September J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36 3 : J Personal Disord 18 1 : Segunda edición revisada y ampliada. Fonagy enero American Journal of Psychiatry 1 : Trastornos de la personalidad. Barcelona: Editorial Masson. Clarkin, L. Scott, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychology 62 : Meehan, K. Kelly, et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 : PhD; K. Levy, PhD, M. Lenzenweger, PhD, et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry : Oxford University Press p. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 87 4 : Oxford University Press Ch. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. Koenigsberg Verkes enero de Pharmacopsychiatry 38 1 : Psychopharmacology Suppl 2 : Viala, H. Bardou, et al. Encephale 4 Pt 1 : March - April Bergmans, S. Warwar July 1 Siegfried, G. Walter September Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 11 3 : Res Nurs Health 22 : — Contemporary Nurse. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 38 7 : Pascual, J. Campins, et al. Am J Psychiatry 6 : Yen, E. Costello, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 3 : Brodsky, B. Stanley octubre de Wilkins Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 34 3 : Understanding borderline personality disorder. London: Mind. Visitado el Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7 : Eur Psychiatry. Epub Jun 4. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Buenos Aires. Ciudad con migrantes. Sexualidades migrantes. La revolución de las mariposas. Infomes y testimonios. Debates en la cultura argentina 3. Se trata de nosotras. Informe anual Argentina Fsoc-Inst. Cuerpxs en fuga. Críticas en torno a la patologización de la transexualidad España Egales AA. Postmodern lesbian politics EE. Hacia un imaginario inclusivo Argentina Del dragón AA. Parentesco Argentina Ají de pollo AA. Sexualidad femenina y procesos de pensamiento dos copias Argentina Finnegans AA. Obras completas. Volumen 10 Argentina Amorrortu Maldavsky, David comp. A Botana, Natalio La tradición republicana. Los griegos Inglaterra Eudeba Malet, A. Historia romana. Hacia el plan Fénix. Avon books Phelman, Shane Is it a choice? Getting in touch with your inner homo EE. Flying circus. D, Gogna..

Recibido: 16 09 Aceptado: 11 03 Food patterns and consumption practices are intrinsic components of population groups across the world.

Those dietary practices are influenced by the physical environment, particularly those products identified as edibles, but also by the cultural practices that define people.

Extensive research indicates that food patterns play substantial roles in the causation and prevention of chronic, non communicable diseases 1 and that the food environment, including access to food outlets Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual the presence Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual healthy choices, is associated with eating behaviors 2, 3. It has been shown that shopping preferences are linked to obesity and that the lack of healthy food options in grocery stores leads to weight gain 4.

Successful policies should also be part of a larger plan to change social norms 5. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6.

We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10including their food preferences.

Despite the significance of https://doc-7.puzzle-games.website/article-04-10-2019.php in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, This web page and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States.

The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts.

Researchers believed that the conduct of the GUA NEMS S would result in a more thorough analysis of the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in stores in Latino communities in the US be cause the items on the survey would match those being sold in these culturally specific stores.

The primary objective of this study was to test the GUA NEMS Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual to examine the food environment in a convenient, small sample of Latino stores, located in East Somerville, in which there is a rapidly growing Latino population, primarily of Central American origin.

Secondarily, researchers also utilized the NEMS S surveys to assess the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino stores. Through enumeration of the study area Eastern Massachusettsresearchers selected the city of East Somerville, for its urban location and large Latino population, particularly recent migrants of Central American origins.

A list of food outlets was compiled from a previous study conducted in the area 12 and from the Somerville census data.

This study focused only on grocery stores. After the creation of an initial list, where 8 stores were Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, researchers visited the study area to narrow the store selection and to obtain permission from storeowners.

Food outlets were categorized using the system described in the NEMS online training The local Institutional Review Board approved this study, and owners or managers of the Latino stores gave in formed consent. Finally, researchers created store layouts of the items sold in the three Latino stores and diagramed the floor plans.

NEMS S was the tool used to quantify the availability Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual healthy food options in the three Latino grocery stores of study. This web page new survey was pilot tested in stores in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and proved ac curate as a modification for items included in the Guatemalan diet Link categories include: milk, fruit, vegetables each item.

Within the categories, the individual items added to the Guatemala survey were papaya, pineapple, and plums for fruit, and green beans, zucchini, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, guicoysquash, radishes and avocados for vegetables. These items were chosen to reflect the Guatemalan diet. Fruit and vegetable items were all considered healthy food options, and each additional category Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual regular and healthy options e. Pearson Chi Square tests were used to undertake four inquiries: 1.

Inter survey comparison of the 29 common items: areas of interest were availability of healthier options, fruit, and vegetable items in the three Latino stores; 2. The stores were small, with only one or two cash registers.

All three stores had sections for many of the same items found in larger stores and supermarkets. Many of the sections, however, were limited or lacking certain items. There were some unique properties to the stores.

A lack of price labeling on the majority of food items was common to all three stores. Thus, the presence or absence of each of these items on the store shelves was identically reported by both raters for all three stores.

Focusing on the non produce items Table 2all three stores had the following regular versions of index items: milk, baked goods, soda, juice, chips, and bread. Two out of three stores had skim milk, low sugar cereal, and whole wheat bread, on the healthier side, and regularly sweetened breakfast cereal. Only one store had frozen dinners and low fat baked goods available. Raters never found healthier versions of chips Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual or frozen dinners low fatnor were ground beef or hotdogs found in either regular or healthier format.

Focusing on the specific avai lability of the healthier options, a first examination of the core items was done Table 2. For external comparability, a comparison of the core list of the 9 non produce items with soda and juice now constituting a single category of beverages was done across sites.

The cumulative availability in Store 1 was By Chi square analysis, the differential availability, considering all 29 elements of Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual U. Four items in two contrast pairings i.

All stores had both the healthier and re gular option for black beans.

Geys Video Watch PORN Movies Palestina Videos. Amor a los pibe. Irene 36 movimientos hasta Argentina La bohemia Nachón. Volumen I Argentina Peek a boo Nachón. Color pastel. Fanzine de poesía. Poesía gay de Buenos Aires. El maestro de las telenovelas que revolucionó la educación sentimental de un país Argentina Sudamericana Malva Mi recordatorio. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Oxford University Press. Oxford Statistical Science Series. Maduración temprana: factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad? Arch Latinoam Nutr; 49 1 : Comparing three body mass index classification systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Malina R. Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press. Washington, DC , pp: The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y. Am J Clinical Nutr ; 59 4 Body mass index variations: Centiles from birth to 87 years. Europ J Clin Nutr ; 45 1 Arch Venez Puer Pediatr ; 75 2 Nutr Hosp ; 27 1 Moringa oleifera: Revisión sobre aplicaciones y usos en alimentos. Universidad de Murcia, España. Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Las diferentes estructuras de la planta hoja, raíz, corteza, flores, vainas La literatura científica recoge numerosos efectos saludables de las diferentes partes de la moringa tales como efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio o bactericida entre otros. En el sector de la panadería el objetivo suele ser el enriquecimiento nutricional del alimento. Moringa oleifera : A review of food ap plications. Moringa oleifera is a tree native to certain re gions Asia and Africa, adaptable to territories of hot weather and low precipitation rates. In some areas diffe rent parts of the tree leaves, roots, bark, flowers, pods These structures have also a high nutritional value vita mins, minerals and essential amino acids among others giving an important potential role in the prevention of malnutrition. The scientific literature describes many sa lutary effects of the different parts of the moringa such as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory or bactericide, among others. With the aim of bringing the properties of moringa to consumers, a few studies have been developed with different foods, mainly meat and bread, in which the moringa is incorporated as an ingredient leaf, seed, ex tracts, etc. In meat products it is used as a preservative and antioxidant additive with very good results without affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product. In the field of bakery the objective is usually as nutritional fortification. In these cases the sensory characteristics are variable depending on the dose used and the product under study bread, cookies, etc. The food industry has an inte resting challenge ahead: the incorporation of moringa as a natural ingredient, as a substituting different classical preservatives and antioxidant and at the same time prepa ring food commodities, such as bread, with high nutritio nal value, ideal for certain population groups in risk of malnutrition. Key words: Moringa oleifera , antioxidant, food, meat products, bread. Recibe diferentes nombres, tales como Drums tick tree, Horse Radish tree o Ben oil tree 2. Los motivos para esta gran variedad de funciones pueden ser debido a su alto poder nutritivo. Propiedades biológicas de la planta Moringa oleifera. Estudios in vivo de actividad antiinflamatorio y antioxidante. Los efectos antiinflamatorios se deben principlamente a la gran cantidad de flavonoides presentes en la hoja de moringa, donde se han descrito hasta doce compuestos distintos, derivados de la quercitina y kaempferol 7. Minaiyan et al 8 investigaron la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto semillas de moringa en el tratamiento de colitis ulcerosa inducida. También estudiaron el daño microscópico determinando la severidad y extensión de la inflamación y el daño de las criptas. El estudio se llevó a cabo con 54 ratas Wistar macho de entre g de peso divididas en nueve grupos. El grupo 3 de referencia recibió la inducción y tratamiento farmacológico prednisolona. El tiempo de ensayo fue de cinco días. Tumer et al 10 estudiaron el mecanismo por el cual las hojas de moringa ejercen su función antioxidante. El extracto de las hojas se separó en dos fases, una rica en polifenoles y otra en isotiocianatos. Tras la adición del extracto y evaluación del mismo los autores observaron que la en fracción rica en polifenoles hubo una mayor actividad de la NAQO1 mientras que la fracción rica en isotiocianatos produjo mayor absorción de radicales de oxígeno. De esta manera los autores explican que la actividad antioxidante de la hoja de moringa y su potencial terapéutico se debe, en parte, a la doble forma de actuación descrita. Vasanth et al 11 valoraron in vitro la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la corteza del tronco de la moringa. Se realizaron seis cultivos celulares: un control negativo sin exposición LPS referencia , un control positivo con exposición a LPS 1. Waterman et al 12 , evidenciaron que, a nivel cromosómico, los isotiocianatos presentes en un concentrado de hojas frescas de moringa modulan la expresión génica para la liberación de sustancias pro inflamatorias. Los autores obtuvieron el extracto metanólico de las hojas de moringa, del cual separaron mediante un HPLC semipreparativa la fracción rica en isotiocianatos. Se prepararon a su vez dos cultivos celulares, uno sin tratamiento ni exposición control negativo y otro con exposición y sin tratamiento control positivo. De esta forma valoraron la pertinencia del concentrado de hojas de moringa como producto de uso alimentario para disminuir la inflamación vascular asociada a enfermedades crónicas. Los autores analizaron los siguientes indicadores: glutatión reducido GSH , actividad superóxido dismutasa SOD , actividad catalasa y actividad glutatión peroxidasa GP. Efecto en el tratamiento de la diabetes mallitus. Pimjai et al. Los autores concluyeron que dosis altas de polvo de hoja de moringa encapsulado 4 g incrementa significativamente la secreción de insulina, resultando un tratamiento potencial de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Protector de tejidos en intoxicaciones por arsénico. Tras las 16 semanas de duración del experimento se evidencia en el grupo control positivo frente al control negativo el aumento de triglicéridos Este estudio demuestra la efectividad de la hoja de moringa en la reversión de los daños causados por la intoxicación por arsénico. Lamou et al. Los animales se sometieron a pruebas de resistencia de flotación con peso añadido y otras a resistencia sin peso. Tras el ejercicio también hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos tratados y el grupo control en los nive les sanguíneos de lactato De esta manera los au tores concluyen que el extracto acuoso de hoja de mo ringa tiene propiedades anti fatiga frente al ejercicio físico facilitando la movilización de los depósitos de grasa del organismo, retardando el agotamiento de las reservas de glucógeno y disminuyendo la acumulación de lactato y urea en sangre. Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenes , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E. Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V. El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2. Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca. Tras el ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura. Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma. Respecto al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores. Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente informar al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan. En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante. Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1. Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una menor pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1. Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, todas las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2. Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron ser significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto de hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar el poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas. A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen que con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento. De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5. En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35 , se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas con 0. En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Por lo tanto los autores con cluyeron que un 0. Un estudio desarro llado por Saini et al. La desecación me diante exposición solar fue la que mayores pérdidas causó. La Moringa oleifera ha sido utilizada de forma an cestral como curativo o paliativo de enfermedades de muy diversa índole. Sin embargo son todavía escasos los estudios acerca de los beneficios de la moringa utilizada como ingrediente alimentario. Los estudios en alimentos se centran valorar el incremento de las propiedades nu tritivas y la aceptación por parte del consumidor. Una vez descritas las propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud, el amplio margen de seguri dad en humanos 2 y también la validez como antio xidante y conservante alimentario, es necesario incrementar las investigaciones relativas al efecto sobre el organismo derivado del consumo de estos alimentos enriquecidos, teniendo en cuenta diversas variables como las posibles pérdidas de actividad durante el tra tamiento o la interacción con otros compuestos de los mismos, entre otras. Cultivos promisorios para enfriar el clima y alimentar al mundo. Murcia Review of the Safety and Effi cacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res. Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam. Vibrio spp. Asian Pac J Trop Med. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a sustainable solution for potable water. RSC Adv. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagas car? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Food and nutrition sciences. Folate fortification of white and whole-grain bread by adding Swiss chard and spinach. Acceptability by consumers. Quality characteris tics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Mo ringa oleifera seed flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Effect of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase on the quality of pan bread during storage. Nwakalor CN. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Food Sci Tech Mys. Moringa oleifera leaves extract: a natural antioxidant for retar ding lipid peroxidation in cooked goat meat patties. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of synthetic chemical XVIII -in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo supravital micronucleus assay with butylated hydroxytoluene BHT. Effects of different levels of Moringa Moringa oleifera seed flour on quality attributes of beef burgers. CyTA-J Food. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves in her bal chicken sausages. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic rich Moringa oleifera Lam. Extracts in food systems. J Food Bio chem. Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, toco pherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Mo ringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product. Recibido: Aceptado: Solomons, Odilia I. The dietary practices of diverse population groups, associated with the nutritional transition and the rapid demographic changes occurring globally require more attention to the food preferences of migrant groups such as Latinos living in the United States United States of America US. This work aimed at the performance of an instrument utilized to measure availability of healthy food options in Latino stores located in the town of Somerville, state of Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There was a general lack of healthy food options found when using the US survey, as well as a relatively narrow selection of fruits and vegetables. As conclusion, it was found that the US NEMS S tended to identify a lower number of healthy food options, as compared to a larger number of similar options when a culturally appropriate survey was used. These findings illustrate a manner in which a culture specific instrument perform more appropriately than similar instruments adapted for other population groups, especially when the results are to be applied to support development of healthy food policies. Este trabajo documenta los resultados de aplicar un instrumento para medir disponibilidad de alimentos saludables en tres tiendas latinas ubicadas en la ciudad de Somerville, estado de Massachusetts. La metodología utilizada incluyó la aplicación de dos versiones: guatemalteca y EU de la Encuesta para Medir Ambiente Nutricional en Tiendas NEMS S, siglas en inglés , para evaluar la disponibilidad de alimentos saludables. Los datos se analizaron con estadísticas descriptivas. Estos hallazgos ilustran la importancia de utilizar instrumentos específicos para determinar disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, especialmente cuando los resultados se utilicen para apoyar el desarrollo de políticas alimentarias. Recibido: 16 09 Aceptado: 11 03 Food patterns and consumption practices are intrinsic components of population groups across the world. Those dietary practices are influenced by the physical environment, particularly those products identified as edibles, but also by the cultural practices that define people. Extensive research indicates that food patterns play substantial roles in the causation and prevention of chronic, non communicable diseases 1 and that the food environment, including access to food outlets and the presence of healthy choices, is associated with eating behaviors 2, 3. It has been shown that shopping preferences are linked to obesity and that the lack of healthy food options in grocery stores leads to weight gain 4. Successful policies should also be part of a larger plan to change social norms 5. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6. We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10 , including their food preferences. Despite the significance of culture in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, Hondurans and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States. The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge by assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts. Protocolo Organizaciones Populares. Violencia contra las mujeres en relaciones de pareja [violencia sexual] Argentina Pixel Laqueur, Thomas Sexo solitario. Cómo prevenir e intervenir en situaciones de acoso escolar Argentina Paidós AA. Boletín Oficial. Hacia un plan nacional contra la discriminación Argentina Presidencia de la Nación Fronteras sexuales. Una visión marxista Argentina Alternativa Faur, Eleonor comp. Mujeres y varones en la Argentina de hoy. Jorge Acha. Apuntes sobre la homosexualidad para cerrar el caso Argentina Wolkowicz Meccia, Ernesto El tiempo no para. De la pantalla grande al living de la casa dos copias Argentina Paidós AA. Informe anual Argentina Fsoc-Inst. Cuerpxs en fuga. Críticas en torno a la patologización de la transexualidad España Egales AA. Postmodern lesbian politics EE. Hacia un imaginario inclusivo Argentina Del dragón AA. Parentesco Argentina Ají de pollo AA. Sexualidad femenina y procesos de pensamiento dos copias Argentina Finnegans AA. Nysaeter September J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36 3 : J Personal Disord 18 1 : Segunda edición revisada y ampliada. Fonagy enero American Journal of Psychiatry 1 : Trastornos de la personalidad. Barcelona: Editorial Masson. Clarkin, L. Scott, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychology 62 : Meehan, K. Kelly, et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 : PhD; K. Levy, PhD, M. Lenzenweger, PhD, et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry : Oxford University Press p. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 87 4 : Oxford University Press Ch. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. Koenigsberg Verkes enero de Pharmacopsychiatry 38 1 : Psychopharmacology Suppl 2 : Viala, H. Bardou, et al. Encephale 4 Pt 1 : March - April Bergmans, S. Warwar July 1 Siegfried, G. Walter September Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 11 3 : Res Nurs Health 22 : — Contemporary Nurse. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 38 7 : Pascual, J. Campins, et al. Am J Psychiatry 6 : Yen, E. Costello, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 65 3 : Brodsky, B. Stanley octubre de Wilkins Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 34 3 : Understanding borderline personality disorder. London: Mind. Visitado el Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7 : Eur Psychiatry. Epub Jun 4. Meltzer, R. Gatward with The Department of Health Psychiatric morbidity among prisoners in England and Wales. London: The Stationery Office. Cambridge,MA: Hogrefe. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verla. Datos: Q Multimedia: Borderline personality disorder. Categoría : Trastornos de la personalidad. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BMI z score is the optimal measure of annual adiposity change in elementary school children. An Hum Biol ; 38 6 : Eveleth P. Valores de referencia. Caracas ; pp. Maduración Temprana. Factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad?. Patterns of body mass and muscular components in children and adolescents of Caracas. Acta Med Auxol ; 33 3 Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: Comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56 3 : Arch Dis Child ; 96 10 : The use of local reference growth charts for clinical use or universal standard: a balanced appraisal. Endocrinol Invest ; 35 2 : Méndez Castellano H. Proyecto Venezuela. Méndez Castellano editor. Escuela Técnica Popular Don Bosco. Tomo II. Caracas ; p. World Health Organization. Disponibleen: www. World Medical Association. Fortaleza, Brazil Protocolo Internacional para la Valoración Antropométrica. Stewart, M. Marfell-Jones, T. Olds, H. Publicado por ISAK. Biblioteca Nacional de Australia ; p. Indices of relative weight and obesity. Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas. Arm muscle and arm fat areas: reference values for children and adolescents. Project Venezuela. Auxology 94 Humanbiol Budapest. Macías de Tomei C. Evaluación de la maduración Sexual. En: M. López, I. Izaguirre, C. Macías editoras. Crecimiento y MaduraciónFísica. Editorial MédicaPanamericana. Caracas , pp. Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability. EducPsycholMeas; 33 3 : Pepe MS. Oxford University Press. Oxford Statistical Science Series. Maduración temprana: factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad? Arch Latinoam Nutr; 49 1 : Comparing three body mass index classification systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Malina R. Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press. Washington, DC , pp: The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y. Am J Clinical Nutr ; 59 4 Body mass index variations: Centiles from birth to 87 years. Europ J Clin Nutr ; 45 1 Arch Venez Puer Pediatr ; 75 2 Nutr Hosp ; 27 1 Moringa oleifera: Revisión sobre aplicaciones y usos en alimentos. Universidad de Murcia, España. Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Las diferentes estructuras de la planta hoja, raíz, corteza, flores, vainas La literatura científica recoge numerosos efectos saludables de las diferentes partes de la moringa tales como efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio o bactericida entre otros. En el sector de la panadería el objetivo suele ser el enriquecimiento nutricional del alimento. Moringa oleifera : A review of food ap plications. Moringa oleifera is a tree native to certain re gions Asia and Africa, adaptable to territories of hot weather and low precipitation rates. In some areas diffe rent parts of the tree leaves, roots, bark, flowers, pods These structures have also a high nutritional value vita mins, minerals and essential amino acids among others giving an important potential role in the prevention of malnutrition. The scientific literature describes many sa lutary effects of the different parts of the moringa such as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory or bactericide, among others. With the aim of bringing the properties of moringa to consumers, a few studies have been developed with different foods, mainly meat and bread, in which the moringa is incorporated as an ingredient leaf, seed, ex tracts, etc. In meat products it is used as a preservative and antioxidant additive with very good results without affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product. In the field of bakery the objective is usually as nutritional fortification. In these cases the sensory characteristics are variable depending on the dose used and the product under study bread, cookies, etc. The food industry has an inte resting challenge ahead: the incorporation of moringa as a natural ingredient, as a substituting different classical preservatives and antioxidant and at the same time prepa ring food commodities, such as bread, with high nutritio nal value, ideal for certain population groups in risk of malnutrition. Key words: Moringa oleifera , antioxidant, food, meat products, bread. Recibe diferentes nombres, tales como Drums tick tree, Horse Radish tree o Ben oil tree 2. Los motivos para esta gran variedad de funciones pueden ser debido a su alto poder nutritivo. Propiedades biológicas de la planta Moringa oleifera. Estudios in vivo de actividad antiinflamatorio y antioxidante. Los efectos antiinflamatorios se deben principlamente a la gran cantidad de flavonoides presentes en la hoja de moringa, donde se han descrito hasta doce compuestos distintos, derivados de la quercitina y kaempferol 7. Minaiyan et al 8 investigaron la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto semillas de moringa en el tratamiento de colitis ulcerosa inducida. También estudiaron el daño microscópico determinando la severidad y extensión de la inflamación y el daño de las criptas. El estudio se llevó a cabo con 54 ratas Wistar macho de entre g de peso divididas en nueve grupos. El grupo 3 de referencia recibió la inducción y tratamiento farmacológico prednisolona. El tiempo de ensayo fue de cinco días. Tumer et al 10 estudiaron el mecanismo por el cual las hojas de moringa ejercen su función antioxidante. El extracto de las hojas se separó en dos fases, una rica en polifenoles y otra en isotiocianatos. Tras la adición del extracto y evaluación del mismo los autores observaron que la en fracción rica en polifenoles hubo una mayor actividad de la NAQO1 mientras que la fracción rica en isotiocianatos produjo mayor absorción de radicales de oxígeno. De esta manera los autores explican que la actividad antioxidante de la hoja de moringa y su potencial terapéutico se debe, en parte, a la doble forma de actuación descrita. Vasanth et al 11 valoraron in vitro la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la corteza del tronco de la moringa. Se realizaron seis cultivos celulares: un control negativo sin exposición LPS referencia , un control positivo con exposición a LPS 1. Waterman et al 12 , evidenciaron que, a nivel cromosómico, los isotiocianatos presentes en un concentrado de hojas frescas de moringa modulan la expresión génica para la liberación de sustancias pro inflamatorias. Los autores obtuvieron el extracto metanólico de las hojas de moringa, del cual separaron mediante un HPLC semipreparativa la fracción rica en isotiocianatos. Se prepararon a su vez dos cultivos celulares, uno sin tratamiento ni exposición control negativo y otro con exposición y sin tratamiento control positivo. De esta forma valoraron la pertinencia del concentrado de hojas de moringa como producto de uso alimentario para disminuir la inflamación vascular asociada a enfermedades crónicas. Los autores analizaron los siguientes indicadores: glutatión reducido GSH , actividad superóxido dismutasa SOD , actividad catalasa y actividad glutatión peroxidasa GP. Efecto en el tratamiento de la diabetes mallitus. Pimjai et al. Los autores concluyeron que dosis altas de polvo de hoja de moringa encapsulado 4 g incrementa significativamente la secreción de insulina, resultando un tratamiento potencial de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Protector de tejidos en intoxicaciones por arsénico. Tras las 16 semanas de duración del experimento se evidencia en el grupo control positivo frente al control negativo el aumento de triglicéridos Este estudio demuestra la efectividad de la hoja de moringa en la reversión de los daños causados por la intoxicación por arsénico. Lamou et al. Los animales se sometieron a pruebas de resistencia de flotación con peso añadido y otras a resistencia sin peso. Tras el ejercicio también hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos tratados y el grupo control en los nive les sanguíneos de lactato De esta manera los au tores concluyen que el extracto acuoso de hoja de mo ringa tiene propiedades anti fatiga frente al ejercicio físico facilitando la movilización de los depósitos de grasa del organismo, retardando el agotamiento de las reservas de glucógeno y disminuyendo la acumulación de lactato y urea en sangre. Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenes , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E. Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V. El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2. Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca. Tras el ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura. Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma. Respecto al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores. Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente informar al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan. En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante. Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1. Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una menor pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1. Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, todas las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2. Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron ser significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto de hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar el poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas. A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen que con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento. De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5. En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35 , se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas con 0. En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Por lo tanto los autores con cluyeron que un 0. Un estudio desarro llado por Saini et al. La desecación me diante exposición solar fue la que mayores pérdidas causó. La Moringa oleifera ha sido utilizada de forma an cestral como curativo o paliativo de enfermedades de muy diversa índole. Sin embargo son todavía escasos los estudios acerca de los beneficios de la moringa utilizada como ingrediente alimentario. Los estudios en alimentos se centran valorar el incremento de las propiedades nu tritivas y la aceptación por parte del consumidor. Una vez descritas las propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud, el amplio margen de seguri dad en humanos 2 y también la validez como antio xidante y conservante alimentario, es necesario incrementar las investigaciones relativas al efecto sobre el organismo derivado del consumo de estos alimentos enriquecidos, teniendo en cuenta diversas variables como las posibles pérdidas de actividad durante el tra tamiento o la interacción con otros compuestos de los mismos, entre otras. Cultivos promisorios para enfriar el clima y alimentar al mundo. Murcia Review of the Safety and Effi cacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res. Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam..

Conversely, neither skim nor whole milk in the boxed presentation see more found in any store visited. Nine items were added to the GUA NEMS S, including three Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual papaya, pineapple and plums, and six vegetables: green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoy, radish and avocado Table 3.

Store 1 had none of the additional fruits. Store 2 had two of the three additional fruits and Store 3 had all three additional fruits Table 3. With regard to the additional vegetable items, Store 1 had two of the six items; Stores 2 and 3 both had four of the six items Table 3. Data was normalized by expressing them as the https://like-8.puzzle-games.website/video-04-03-2020.php percentage availability from each separate origin.

Overall, the percentage availability of fruits in the three stores was In summary, two of the three stores had at least one of the three added fruits available; two of the three stores had at least two of the six added vegetables available. All stores had canned black beans available.

Of the three published studies that reported the instrument performance of the NEMS S, the inter reliability determined by kappa had range of 0. Com pared to these previous studies, the performance of the GUA NEMS S was consistent or exceeded that of the previous studies who have reported Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual on instrument performance.

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Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam. Vibrio spp. Asian Pac J Trop Med. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a sustainable solution for potable water. RSC Adv. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagas car? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Food and nutrition sciences. Folate fortification of white and whole-grain bread by adding Swiss chard and spinach. Acceptability by consumers. Quality characteris tics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Mo ringa oleifera seed flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Effect of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase on the quality of pan bread during storage. Nwakalor CN. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Food Sci Tech Mys. Moringa oleifera leaves extract: a natural antioxidant for retar ding lipid peroxidation in cooked goat meat patties. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of synthetic chemical XVIII -in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo supravital micronucleus assay with butylated hydroxytoluene BHT. Effects of different levels of Moringa Moringa oleifera seed flour on quality attributes of beef burgers. CyTA-J Food. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves in her bal chicken sausages. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic rich Moringa oleifera Lam. Extracts in food systems. J Food Bio chem. Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, toco pherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Mo ringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product. Recibido: Aceptado: Solomons, Odilia I. The dietary practices of diverse population groups, associated with the nutritional transition and the rapid demographic changes occurring globally require more attention to the food preferences of migrant groups such as Latinos living in the United States United States of America US. This work aimed at the performance of an instrument utilized to measure availability of healthy food options in Latino stores located in the town of Somerville, state of Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There was a general lack of healthy food options found when using the US survey, as well as a relatively narrow selection of fruits and vegetables. As conclusion, it was found that the US NEMS S tended to identify a lower number of healthy food options, as compared to a larger number of similar options when a culturally appropriate survey was used. These findings illustrate a manner in which a culture specific instrument perform more appropriately than similar instruments adapted for other population groups, especially when the results are to be applied to support development of healthy food policies. Este trabajo documenta los resultados de aplicar un instrumento para medir disponibilidad de alimentos saludables en tres tiendas latinas ubicadas en la ciudad de Somerville, estado de Massachusetts. La metodología utilizada incluyó la aplicación de dos versiones: guatemalteca y EU de la Encuesta para Medir Ambiente Nutricional en Tiendas NEMS S, siglas en inglés , para evaluar la disponibilidad de alimentos saludables. Los datos se analizaron con estadísticas descriptivas. Estos hallazgos ilustran la importancia de utilizar instrumentos específicos para determinar disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, especialmente cuando los resultados se utilicen para apoyar el desarrollo de políticas alimentarias. Recibido: 16 09 Aceptado: 11 03 Food patterns and consumption practices are intrinsic components of population groups across the world. Those dietary practices are influenced by the physical environment, particularly those products identified as edibles, but also by the cultural practices that define people. Extensive research indicates that food patterns play substantial roles in the causation and prevention of chronic, non communicable diseases 1 and that the food environment, including access to food outlets and the presence of healthy choices, is associated with eating behaviors 2, 3. It has been shown that shopping preferences are linked to obesity and that the lack of healthy food options in grocery stores leads to weight gain 4. Successful policies should also be part of a larger plan to change social norms 5. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6. We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10 , including their food preferences. Despite the significance of culture in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, Hondurans and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States. The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge by assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts. Researchers believed that the conduct of the GUA NEMS S would result in a more thorough analysis of the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in stores in Latino communities in the US be cause the items on the survey would match those being sold in these culturally specific stores. The primary objective of this study was to test the GUA NEMS S to examine the food environment in a convenient, small sample of Latino stores, located in East Somerville, in which there is a rapidly growing Latino population, primarily of Central American origin. Secondarily, researchers also utilized the NEMS S surveys to assess the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino stores. Through enumeration of the study area Eastern Massachusetts , researchers selected the city of East Somerville, for its urban location and large Latino population, particularly recent migrants of Central American origins. A list of food outlets was compiled from a previous study conducted in the area 12 and from the Somerville census data. This study focused only on grocery stores. After the creation of an initial list, where 8 stores were identified, researchers visited the study area to narrow the store selection and to obtain permission from storeowners. Food outlets were categorized using the system described in the NEMS online training The local Institutional Review Board approved this study, and owners or managers of the Latino stores gave in formed consent. Finally, researchers created store layouts of the items sold in the three Latino stores and diagramed the floor plans. NEMS S was the tool used to quantify the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino grocery stores of study. This new survey was pilot tested in stores in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and proved ac curate as a modification for items included in the Guatemalan diet The categories include: milk, fruit, vegetables each item. Within the categories, the individual items added to the Guatemala survey were papaya, pineapple, and plums for fruit, and green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoysquash, radishes and avocados for vegetables. These items were chosen to reflect the Guatemalan diet. Fruit and vegetable items were all considered healthy food options, and each additional category had regular and healthy options e. Pearson Chi Square tests were used to undertake four inquiries: 1. Inter survey comparison of the 29 common items: areas of interest were availability of healthier options, fruit, and vegetable items in the three Latino stores; 2. The stores were small, with only one or two cash registers. All three stores had sections for many of the same items found in larger stores and supermarkets. Many of the sections, however, were limited or lacking certain items. There were some unique properties to the stores. A lack of price labeling on the majority of food items was common to all three stores. Thus, the presence or absence of each of these items on the store shelves was identically reported by both raters for all three stores. Focusing on the non produce items Table 2 , all three stores had the following regular versions of index items: milk, baked goods, soda, juice, chips, and bread. Two out of three stores had skim milk, low sugar cereal, and whole wheat bread, on the healthier side, and regularly sweetened breakfast cereal. Only one store had frozen dinners and low fat baked goods available. Raters never found healthier versions of chips baked or frozen dinners low fat , nor were ground beef or hotdogs found in either regular or healthier format. Focusing on the specific avai lability of the healthier options, a first examination of the core items was done Table 2. For external comparability, a comparison of the core list of the 9 non produce items with soda and juice now constituting a single category of beverages was done across sites. The cumulative availability in Store 1 was By Chi square analysis, the differential availability, considering all 29 elements of the U. Four items in two contrast pairings i. All stores had both the healthier and re gular option for black beans. Conversely, neither skim nor whole milk in the boxed presentation was found in any store visited. Nine items were added to the GUA NEMS S, including three fruits: papaya, pineapple and plums, and six vegetables: green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoy, radish and avocado Table 3. Store 1 had none of the additional fruits. Store 2 had two of the three additional fruits and Store 3 had all three additional fruits Table 3. With regard to the additional vegetable items, Store 1 had two of the six items; Stores 2 and 3 both had four of the six items Table 3. Data was normalized by expressing them as the cumulative percentage availability from each separate origin. Overall, the percentage availability of fruits in the three stores was In summary, two of the three stores had at least one of the three added fruits available; two of the three stores had at least two of the six added vegetables available. All stores had canned black beans available. Of the three published studies that reported the instrument performance of the NEMS S, the inter reliability determined by kappa had range of 0. Com pared to these previous studies, the performance of the GUA NEMS S was consistent or exceeded that of the previous studies who have reported statistics on instrument performance. The high inter rater concordance between NEMS S raters could be in part due to a couple of favorable conditions. This allowed raters to thoroughly conduct the surveys instead of furtively scurrying to collect the data. Although desirable, these conditions are not characteristic of grocery stores, so future NEMS S raters should precede with caution. Rimkus et al aptly note that in study where raters are in the same supermarket simultaneously collecting data low inter rater reliability is unlikely given that both raters are exposed to the same supermarket environment at the same time Results indicate a range of availability of healthy food items between the three stores. Although located in the same area, and providing their services to the same population, it was noticed that Store 1 was poorly stocked for healthy items, whereas Stores 2 and 3 were better stocked with Store 3 having a slight advantage. To date, there are few studies that report the availability of each US NEMS S item in detail rather than a composite healthy food score 16, When com pared to these studies, there was substantially lower availability of baked chips, low fat baked goods, low fat beef, low fat hot dogs and any type of fruit. It becomes evident in appreciating the degree of homology 29 of 40 items in common across the instruments and the imbalance in number of items added to the GUA NEMS S, that no strict comparison of performance of the two versions of the instruments can be made. This would require further development of comparably sized listings in which the availability of foods culturally preferred over the US options are substituted for some of those of the dominant culture in the US NEMS S. This new survey still needs to be developed. However, the relative performance of the GUA NEMS S can be examined by looking at the sale of certain milk, beans, fruits and vegetables with a certain Latino affinity, in addition to those that are reflective of the US culture. Across stores, the number of healthy items identified as available increased in the three stores: in Store 1 9 vs. In their review of the food environment literature, Anderson Steeves and coworkers identified as a main gap the paucity of studies in di verse settings, especially within developing countries One study in Paraguay modified the NEMS S to study the Paraguayan food environment and found that healthy bread and dairy options were limited Mar tins et al also modified the NEMS S to study food environments in Brazil by expanding upon the degree of food processing and its association with obesity The comparisons between the work reported here and these studies are limited, but highlight the importance of designing and adopting survey methods to study food environments. The major strength of this study is the theme of availability of healthy food options in the context of acculturation occurring in migrant communities with established elements of the US society. While neither of them, however, was a native speaker of Spanish nonpart of the Latino community, the storeowners and store personnel, however, were sufficiently bilingual to exclude linguistic communication barriers as a problem in the study. The orthodox NEMS S protocol calls for making the observations, when possible, without alerting the store personnel to the inspection. Under the study circumstances, however, it was considered necessary and appropriate to establish full transparency and obtain au theorization from the store owners. The achieved high inter rater scores may derive, in part, from the relaxed conditions in the inspection, without the distraction of the furtive nature of an unannounced survey. Moreover, the small overall number of items in the lists and their numerical as symmetry, with 29 items of established interest to the general US population and 40 of presumed relevance for the Latinos resident in the US, presented a problem in choice of a statistical approach for a strict parallel comparison across the instruments. The results of this study highlight the importance of attending to the cultural characteristics of the diverse population groups that are more inclined to do their food shopping in small, ethnic stores such as those frequented by Latinos. In the middle of the current epidemic of obesity and non communicable diseases associated with eating pat terns, it is needed to encourage and support owners of Latino stores to offer more ethnic specific healthy options of the traditional Latino food products. Additionally, in the future, a second generation of culturally sensitive NESM S, that substitutes foods of a more tropical and Central American origin in the listing, rather than simply adding them on, will need to be developed and tested in a similar context and paradigm as the one that gave the cultural framework to this study. Obesity and the food environment: dietary energy density and diet costs. Am J Prev Med ;27 3 Desig ned for disease: the link between local food environ ments and obesity and diabetes. Drewnowski A, Rolls BJ. How to modify the food en vironment. J Nutr ; 4 Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches. Annu Rev Public Health ; Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement. Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot ;19 5 Asp EH. Factors affecting food decisions made by in dividual consumers. Food Policy ;24 2 Kumanyika SK. Environmental influences on child hood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav ;94 1 Italian ethnic identity and its relative impact on the consumption of conve nience and traditional foods. J Consum Mark ;15 2 Mankekar P. Ethnos ;67 1 A novel mobile phone application to assess nutrition environment measures in low and middle income countries. Food Nutr Bull ;35 3 Urban Bor derlands. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Updated Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form. J Nutr Educ Behav ;45 6 Am J Prev Med ;32 4 Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores. J Community Health ;35 3 Dietary acculturation: applications to nutrition rese arch and dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc ; 8 A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research. Food store availability and neighborhood charac teristics in the United States. Prev Med ;44 3 Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut. Health Aff Millwood ;27 5 Gartin M. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Para guay. Am J Hum Biol ;24 3 Validation of an adapted ver sion of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores NEMS S in an urban area of Brazil. Curr Obes Rep ;3 4 Regional University of Blumenau. The effect of cocoa powder and subchronic exposure to classical music in Wistar rats behavior on an xiety evaluation tests and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. Ani mals from MG and CPMG groups showed the highest total horizontal locomotion and more time spent at the central area and reduced immobility time at the OF. We concluded that the treatment with this classical music sho wed mild anxiolytic activity. Both treatments cocoa and music improved serum antioxidant status, but the peri pheral activity of different serum enzymes was mainly improved by the cocoa powder. Key words: Cocoa powder, classical music, anxiety, elevated plus maze, open field, oxidative stress. Recibido: 07 11 Aceptado: 17 01 Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, asso ciated to ill being, discomfort, worry or fear of any defined or undefined future threat. Although it is a na tural reaction to stress, when it is excessive or out of pro portion to the stimulus, it is considered pathological 1. The occurrence of mental disorders, among them an xiety, have increased globally along the years. Poesía gay de Buenos Aires. El maestro de las telenovelas que revolucionó la educación sentimental de un país Argentina Sudamericana Malva Mi recordatorio. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Buenos Aires. Ciudad con migrantes. Sexualidades migrantes. La revolución de las mariposas. Infomes y testimonios. Gerson, et al. J Psychiatr Pract 10 3 : Acceso el MD American Medical Network. Acceso Wilberg, S. Karterud enero Int J Group Psychother 57 1 : American Journal of Psychiatry 24 : Norrie, P. Tyrer, et al. Journal of Personality Disorders 20 5 : Accedido Linehan Psychiatric Clinics of North America 23 1 : PhD; J. Gunderson MD January McLean Hospital Psychiatic Update. Van Den Bosch, M. Koeter, et al. British Journal of Psychiatry : Comtois, A. Murray, et al. Archives of General Psychiatry 63 7 : Rossiter, J. Milner febrero- marzo Contemporary Nurse 21 1 : Spinhoven, et al. June Archives of General Psychiatry 63 6 : Nysaeter September J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36 3 : J Personal Disord 18 1 : Segunda edición revisada y ampliada. Fonagy enero American Journal of Psychiatry 1 : Trastornos de la personalidad. Barcelona: Editorial Masson. Clarkin, L. Scott, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychology 62 : Meehan, K. Kelly, et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 : PhD; K. Levy, PhD, M. Lenzenweger, PhD, et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry : Oxford University Press p. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 87 4 : Oxford University Press Ch. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. Koenigsberg Verkes enero de Pharmacopsychiatry 38 1 : Psychopharmacology Suppl 2 : Viala, H. Bardou, et al. Encephale 4 Pt 1 : March - April Bergmans, S. Acta Med Auxol ; 33 3 Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: Comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56 3 : Arch Dis Child ; 96 10 : The use of local reference growth charts for clinical use or universal standard: a balanced appraisal. Endocrinol Invest ; 35 2 : Méndez Castellano H. Proyecto Venezuela. Méndez Castellano editor. Escuela Técnica Popular Don Bosco. Tomo II. Caracas ; p. World Health Organization. Disponibleen: www. World Medical Association. Fortaleza, Brazil Protocolo Internacional para la Valoración Antropométrica. Stewart, M. Marfell-Jones, T. Olds, H. Publicado por ISAK. Biblioteca Nacional de Australia ; p. Indices of relative weight and obesity. Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas. Arm muscle and arm fat areas: reference values for children and adolescents. Project Venezuela. Auxology 94 Humanbiol Budapest. Macías de Tomei C. Evaluación de la maduración Sexual. En: M. López, I. Izaguirre, C. Macías editoras. Crecimiento y MaduraciónFísica. Editorial MédicaPanamericana. Caracas , pp. Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability. EducPsycholMeas; 33 3 : Pepe MS. Oxford University Press. Oxford Statistical Science Series. Maduración temprana: factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad? Arch Latinoam Nutr; 49 1 : Comparing three body mass index classification systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Malina R. Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press. Washington, DC , pp: The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y. Am J Clinical Nutr ; 59 4 Body mass index variations: Centiles from birth to 87 years. Europ J Clin Nutr ; 45 1 Arch Venez Puer Pediatr ; 75 2 Nutr Hosp ; 27 1 Moringa oleifera: Revisión sobre aplicaciones y usos en alimentos. Universidad de Murcia, España. Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Las diferentes estructuras de la planta hoja, raíz, corteza, flores, vainas La literatura científica recoge numerosos efectos saludables de las diferentes partes de la moringa tales como efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio o bactericida entre otros. En el sector de la panadería el objetivo suele ser el enriquecimiento nutricional del alimento. Moringa oleifera : A review of food ap plications. Moringa oleifera is a tree native to certain re gions Asia and Africa, adaptable to territories of hot weather and low precipitation rates. In some areas diffe rent parts of the tree leaves, roots, bark, flowers, pods These structures have also a high nutritional value vita mins, minerals and essential amino acids among others giving an important potential role in the prevention of malnutrition. The scientific literature describes many sa lutary effects of the different parts of the moringa such as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory or bactericide, among others. With the aim of bringing the properties of moringa to consumers, a few studies have been developed with different foods, mainly meat and bread, in which the moringa is incorporated as an ingredient leaf, seed, ex tracts, etc. In meat products it is used as a preservative and antioxidant additive with very good results without affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product. In the field of bakery the objective is usually as nutritional fortification. In these cases the sensory characteristics are variable depending on the dose used and the product under study bread, cookies, etc. The food industry has an inte resting challenge ahead: the incorporation of moringa as a natural ingredient, as a substituting different classical preservatives and antioxidant and at the same time prepa ring food commodities, such as bread, with high nutritio nal value, ideal for certain population groups in risk of malnutrition. Key words: Moringa oleifera , antioxidant, food, meat products, bread. Recibe diferentes nombres, tales como Drums tick tree, Horse Radish tree o Ben oil tree 2. Los motivos para esta gran variedad de funciones pueden ser debido a su alto poder nutritivo. Propiedades biológicas de la planta Moringa oleifera. Estudios in vivo de actividad antiinflamatorio y antioxidante. Los efectos antiinflamatorios se deben principlamente a la gran cantidad de flavonoides presentes en la hoja de moringa, donde se han descrito hasta doce compuestos distintos, derivados de la quercitina y kaempferol 7. Minaiyan et al 8 investigaron la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto semillas de moringa en el tratamiento de colitis ulcerosa inducida. También estudiaron el daño microscópico determinando la severidad y extensión de la inflamación y el daño de las criptas. El estudio se llevó a cabo con 54 ratas Wistar macho de entre g de peso divididas en nueve grupos. El grupo 3 de referencia recibió la inducción y tratamiento farmacológico prednisolona. El tiempo de ensayo fue de cinco días. Tumer et al 10 estudiaron el mecanismo por el cual las hojas de moringa ejercen su función antioxidante. El extracto de las hojas se separó en dos fases, una rica en polifenoles y otra en isotiocianatos. Tras la adición del extracto y evaluación del mismo los autores observaron que la en fracción rica en polifenoles hubo una mayor actividad de la NAQO1 mientras que la fracción rica en isotiocianatos produjo mayor absorción de radicales de oxígeno. De esta manera los autores explican que la actividad antioxidante de la hoja de moringa y su potencial terapéutico se debe, en parte, a la doble forma de actuación descrita. Vasanth et al 11 valoraron in vitro la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la corteza del tronco de la moringa. Se realizaron seis cultivos celulares: un control negativo sin exposición LPS referencia , un control positivo con exposición a LPS 1. Waterman et al 12 , evidenciaron que, a nivel cromosómico, los isotiocianatos presentes en un concentrado de hojas frescas de moringa modulan la expresión génica para la liberación de sustancias pro inflamatorias. Los autores obtuvieron el extracto metanólico de las hojas de moringa, del cual separaron mediante un HPLC semipreparativa la fracción rica en isotiocianatos. Se prepararon a su vez dos cultivos celulares, uno sin tratamiento ni exposición control negativo y otro con exposición y sin tratamiento control positivo. De esta forma valoraron la pertinencia del concentrado de hojas de moringa como producto de uso alimentario para disminuir la inflamación vascular asociada a enfermedades crónicas. Los autores analizaron los siguientes indicadores: glutatión reducido GSH , actividad superóxido dismutasa SOD , actividad catalasa y actividad glutatión peroxidasa GP. Efecto en el tratamiento de la diabetes mallitus. Pimjai et al. Los autores concluyeron que dosis altas de polvo de hoja de moringa encapsulado 4 g incrementa significativamente la secreción de insulina, resultando un tratamiento potencial de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Protector de tejidos en intoxicaciones por arsénico. Tras las 16 semanas de duración del experimento se evidencia en el grupo control positivo frente al control negativo el aumento de triglicéridos Este estudio demuestra la efectividad de la hoja de moringa en la reversión de los daños causados por la intoxicación por arsénico. Lamou et al. Los animales se sometieron a pruebas de resistencia de flotación con peso añadido y otras a resistencia sin peso. Tras el ejercicio también hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos tratados y el grupo control en los nive les sanguíneos de lactato De esta manera los au tores concluyen que el extracto acuoso de hoja de mo ringa tiene propiedades anti fatiga frente al ejercicio físico facilitando la movilización de los depósitos de grasa del organismo, retardando el agotamiento de las reservas de glucógeno y disminuyendo la acumulación de lactato y urea en sangre. Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenes , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E. Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V. El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2. Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca. Tras el ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura. Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma. Respecto al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores. Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente informar al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan. En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante. Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1. Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una menor pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1. Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, todas las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2. Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron ser significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto de hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar el poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas. A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen que con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento. De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5. En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35 , se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas con 0. En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Por lo tanto los autores con cluyeron que un 0. Un estudio desarro llado por Saini et al. La desecación me diante exposición solar fue la que mayores pérdidas causó. La Moringa oleifera ha sido utilizada de forma an cestral como curativo o paliativo de enfermedades de muy diversa índole. Sin embargo son todavía escasos los estudios acerca de los beneficios de la moringa utilizada como ingrediente alimentario. Los estudios en alimentos se centran valorar el incremento de las propiedades nu tritivas y la aceptación por parte del consumidor. Una vez descritas las propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud, el amplio margen de seguri dad en humanos 2 y también la validez como antio xidante y conservante alimentario, es necesario incrementar las investigaciones relativas al efecto sobre el organismo derivado del consumo de estos alimentos enriquecidos, teniendo en cuenta diversas variables como las posibles pérdidas de actividad durante el tra tamiento o la interacción con otros compuestos de los mismos, entre otras. Cultivos promisorios para enfriar el clima y alimentar al mundo. Murcia Review of the Safety and Effi cacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res. Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam. Vibrio spp. Asian Pac J Trop Med. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a sustainable solution for potable water. RSC Adv. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagas car? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Food and nutrition sciences. Folate fortification of white and whole-grain bread by adding Swiss chard and spinach..

The high inter rater concordance between NEMS S raters could Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual in part due to a couple of favorable conditions.

This allowed raters to thoroughly conduct the surveys instead of furtively scurrying to collect the data. Article source desirable, these conditions are not characteristic of grocery stores, so future NEMS S raters should precede with caution. Rimkus et al aptly note that Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual study where raters are in the same supermarket simultaneously collecting data low inter rater reliability is unlikely given that both raters are exposed to the same supermarket environment at the same time Results indicate a range of availability of healthy food items between the three stores.

Although located in the same area, and providing their services to the same population, it was noticed that Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual 1 was poorly stocked for healthy items, whereas Stores 2 and 3 were better stocked with Store 3 having a slight advantage. To date, there are few studies that report the availability of each US NEMS S item in detail rather than a composite healthy food score 16, When com pared to these studies, there was substantially lower availability of baked chips, low fat baked goods, low fat beef, low fat hot dogs and any type of fruit.

It becomes evident in appreciating the degree of homology 29 of 40 items Solteras maduras cachondas en Atenas common across the instruments and the imbalance in number of items added to the GUA NEMS S, that no strict comparison of performance of the two versions of the instruments can be made.

This would require further development of comparably sized listings in which the availability of foods culturally preferred over the US options are substituted for some of those of the dominant culture in the US NEMS S. This new survey still needs to be developed.

However, the relative performance of the GUA NEMS S can be examined by looking at the sale of certain milk, beans, fruits and vegetables with a certain Latino affinity, in addition to those that are reflective of the US culture. Across stores, the number of healthy items identified as available increased in the three stores: in Store 1 9 vs. In their review of the food environment literature, Anderson Steeves and coworkers identified as a main gap the paucity of studies in di verse settings, especially within developing countries One study in Paraguay modified the NEMS S to study the Paraguayan food environment and found that healthy bread and dairy options were limited Mar tins et al also modified the Visit web page Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual to Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual food environments in Brazil by expanding upon the degree of food processing and its association with obesity The comparisons between the work reported here and these studies are limited, but highlight the importance of designing and adopting survey methods to study food environments.

The major strength of this study is the theme of availability of healthy food options in the context of acculturation occurring in migrant communities with established elements of the US society.

While neither of them, however, was a native speaker of Spanish nonpart of the Latino community, the storeowners and store personnel, however, were sufficiently bilingual to exclude linguistic communication barriers as a problem in the study.

The orthodox NEMS S protocol calls for making the observations, when possible, without alerting the store personnel to the inspection. Under the study circumstances, however, it was considered necessary and appropriate to establish full transparency and obtain au theorization from the store owners. The achieved high inter rater scores may derive, in part, from the relaxed conditions in the inspection, without the distraction of the furtive nature of an unannounced survey.

Moreover, the small overall number of items in the lists and their numerical as symmetry, with 29 items of established interest to the general US population and 40 of presumed relevance for Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual Latinos resident in the US, presented a problem in choice of a statistical approach for a strict parallel comparison across the instruments.

Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual results of this study highlight the importance of attending to the cultural characteristics of the diverse population groups that are more inclined to do their food shopping in small, ethnic stores such as those frequented by Latinos. In the Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual of the current epidemic of obesity and non communicable diseases associated with eating pat terns, it is needed to encourage and support owners of Latino stores to offer more ethnic specific healthy options of the traditional Latino food products.

Additionally, in the future, a Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual this web page of culturally sensitive NESM S, that substitutes foods of a more tropical and Central American origin in the listing, rather than simply adding them on, will need to be developed and tested in a similar context and paradigm as the one that gave the cultural framework to this study.

Obesity and the food environment: dietary energy density and diet costs. Am J Prev Med ;27 3 Desig ned for disease: the link between local food environ ments and obesity and diabetes. Drewnowski A, Rolls BJ. How to modify the food en vironment. J Nutr ; 4 Creating healthy food and eating environments: policy and environmental approaches.

Annu Rev Public Health ; Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement. Healthy nutrition environments: concepts and measures. Am J Health Promot ;19 5 Asp EH. Factors affecting food decisions made by in dividual consumers. Food Policy ;24 2 Kumanyika SK. Environmental influences on child hood obesity: ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav ;94 1 Italian ethnic identity and its relative impact on the consumption of conve nience and traditional foods.

J Consum Mark ;15 2 Mankekar P. Ethnos ;67 1 A novel mobile phone application to assess nutrition environment measures Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual low and middle income countries. Food Nutr Bull ;35 3 Urban Bor derlands.

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey. Updated Development and reliability testing of a food store observation form. J Nutr Educ Behav ;45 6 Am J Prev Med ;32 4 Neighborhood impact on healthy food availability and pricing in food stores.

J Community Health ;35 3 Dietary acculturation: applications to nutrition rese arch and dietetics. J Am Diet Assoc ; 8 A systematic review of the relationship between acculturation and diet among Latinos in the United States: implications for future research.

Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual

Food store availability and neighborhood charac teristics in the United Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual. Prev Med ;44 3 Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven, Connecticut.

Health Aff Millwood ;27 5 Gartin M. Food deserts and nutritional risk in Para guay. Am J Hum Biol Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual 3 Validation of an adapted ver sion of the nutrition environment measurement tool for stores NEMS S in an urban area of Brazil.

Curr Obes Rep ;3 4 Regional University of Blumenau. The effect of cocoa powder and subchronic exposure to classical music in Wistar rats behavior on Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual xiety evaluation tests and their antioxidant activity was evaluated.

Ani mals from MG and CPMG groups showed the highest total horizontal locomotion and more time spent at the central area and reduced immobility time at the OF. We concluded that the treatment with this classical music sho wed mild anxiolytic activity.

Both treatments cocoa and music Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual serum antioxidant status, but the peri pheral activity of different serum enzymes was mainly improved by the cocoa powder.

Key words: Cocoa powder, classical music, anxiety, elevated plus maze, open field, oxidative stress. Recibido: 07 11 Aceptado: 17 01 Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, asso ciated to ill being, discomfort, worry or fear of any defined or undefined future threat. Although it is a na tural reaction to stress, when it is excessive or out of pro portion to the stimulus, it is considered pathological 1. The occurrence of mental disorders, among them an xiety, have increased globally along the years.

An amount of 16,3 trillion dollars is estimated to be spent on health problems associated to mental di sorders between the years of and 2. Additionally, aggravating this situation are the side effects of the drugs used to treat anxiety, such as: headache, nausea, blurred vision, tachycardia, dizziness, fainting, hypotension, hypertension, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, drowsiness, in somnia andv omiting 3.

Faced with these challenges it is both, understanda ble and necessary, to broaden the range of treatment options or complement them, in areas such as phyto therapy, nutrition and diversified complementary the rapies 4. Some foods are of target interest and show good perspectives, but in order for them to be indicated for use, scientific comprobation is necessary. Cocoa powder, a sub product of the Theobroma cacao L. When it is not alkalized du ring processing it shows significant amounts of polyphenols like flavonoids, epicatechins, catechins, proanthocyanidins and quercetin derivatives, and methylxanthines like theobromine and caffeine 5.

Due to its composition, it offers many applications, such as: antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithromboge nic, fibrinolytic, immunomodulatory and antitumoral 6,7. Although still poorly explored, recent evidence has been found of the antidepressant and anxiolytic ef fects of Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual. These were found in pre clinical studies through behavioral testing on animals 8 10 and more modestly on humans trials These effects were as sociated to cocoa's complex composition, but mostly due polyphenols.

Music is a complementary therapy that has been used by humanity for thousands of years and scientific studies which indicate music as a therapeutic method for many conditions have emerged 4. Many studies describe that music causes metabolic alterations to the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis HPAthe sympathetic nervous system and the im mune system, besides reducing anxiety 12, Clas sical music, particularly by Mozart, has demonstrated effects on cortisol levels 14,15modulation of the HPA axis as well as the immune system 16 in hu mans.

Experimental studies with the exposure to music from this particular composer showed reduction of hypertension 17 and anxiety isolatedly in rodents 18 and also when combined with medication Both, human and animal organisms, respond to physical and psychological stress through behavioral and physiological defenses Growing evidences indicate that oxidative stress plays causal role in the development of anxious behavior on rats 20 23 and due to the fact that cocoa Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual conferred antioxidant ef fects and as well as classical music it may work as a potential anxiolytic, this study sought toverify the ef fects of an adjoint intervention of these Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual factors on Wistar rats behavior when submitted to the elevated plus maze EPM and also to the open field OF tests, anxiety evaluation models, associating it to the peripheral antioxidant defense.

After arrival in thevivarium of the labora tory, these animals were housed individually in opaque plastic cage 0. The room was visited on an average of once every 2 or 3 days for cleaning cages, and to provide food "Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual" water. The animals were acclimated to the animal housing facilities for 1 week before the experi ments began.

During the intervention period, which lasted 15 days, the animals of CPG and CPMG groups received once a day, between and PM daily, non alkalized cocoa powder solubili zed in water by oral gavage. Each animal re ceived 2. The solution contains about 8. The CG and MG ani mal groups received 2. The chemical composition of both so lutions is presented in Table 1.

Corn starch was used as placebo to ensure that the infusion time gavage was the same for control and treatment groups, giving density to the solution. This was an important consi deration as the gavage procedure can generate cause stress to the animals. Mozart's music Serenade N. The speaker had a fre quency range of Hz and the music room had a sound level of 65 75 dB.

The silent room where the animals of CG and CPG groups stayed had no music and its sound level was 50 dB ambient Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual.

The animals body weight was measured on the first and last day of the intervention and food consumption was measured three times a week on alternate days and then, the weekly average was calculated.

On the last day of intervention all animals were in dividually subjected to the EPM and OF tests in a sound Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual room, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual the light phase of the cycle between and PM. To minimize possible cir cadian influences, the experimental and control observations were alternated. The tests were con ducted under dim red light 44 Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual.

The apparatus consisted of two open arms 0. The height of the maze was 0. They were then individually placed on the central platform of the elevated plus maze facing an open arm.

Risk assessment is a measure that accounts for the time spent head dipping i. The Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are the entries into the open arms vs. The anxiety behavior in this test is triggered by the high of the maze which evoke a greater strength of fear. The fear induces an avoidancebehavior, which in turn makes the animals prefer the closed arms We also included etholo gically derived measures related to the defensive pat tern of risk assessment behavior, which has been shown to bevery sensitive to changes in anxiety 19, The OF consisted of a black uncovered circular box 0.

Each rat was placed in the central area and allowed to freely explore the ap paratus for 5 min, being filmed during this time. Sub sequently we recorded the total ambulation time i. Time spent immobile i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are shorter horizontal locomotion number of cros sings ; greater time spent in the peripheral area; redu ced ambulation time; reduced central area ambulation time; and greater immobility time.

Anxiolytic treat ments decrease the stress induced inhibition of explo ratory behavior Erythrocytes and plasma were prepared from wholeblood samples obtained from the rats. Wholeblood was collected and transferred to heparinized tubes for erythrocyte Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual. Erythrocytes were was hed three times with cold saline solution 0. The supernatant was diluted in order to contain approximately 0.

The results were expressed as nanomole of malon dialdehyde formed per milligram of protein. Su meta es tratar los conflictos intrapsíquicos, las defensas, el progreso en el desarrollo de la personalidad y sus bloqueos, la adaptabilidad, en especial en cuanto al establecimiento de vínculos afectivos seguros y las competencias para el manejo de estresantes psicosociales. Los estudios efectuados hasta la Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual no proporcionan evidencia determinante sobre la eficacia de las mismas, pero sugieren que las personas diagnosticadas de TLP pueden beneficiarse en al menos alguna de las medidas resultantes.

La psicoterapia habitualmente puede estar dirigida a individuos o grupos. En los años se estableció un nuevo tratamiento psicosocial para el TLP, llamado terapia dialéctica conductual TDCoriginalmente desarrollada como una intervención para pacientes con conductas suicidas. Esta terapia se deriva de las técnicas cognitivo-conductuales y se puede considerar una forma de terapia cognitivo-conductual pero se centra en el intercambio y la negociación entre el terapeuta y el cliente, entre lo racional y lo emocional y entre la aceptación y el cambio de ahí el nombre de dialéctica.

Los objetivos de la terapia son acordados, aunque se priorizan los temas de autolesiones. La TDC se puede fundamentar en la teoría biosocial de la función de la personalidad en la cual el TLP se ve como un trastorno biológico de la regulación emocional en un entorno social experimentado como una invalidación por el paciente borderline.

La terapia cognitivo-analítica fue desarrollada por Anthony Ryle. Combina planteamientos cognitivos y psicoanalíticos y ha sido adaptado para el uso con individuos con TLP con resultados en ambos sentidos. Por ello es imprescindible que todo intento de tratamiento deba ser entendido desde una dualidad procesual interactiva de persona a persona, con lo cual se exigiría la inclusión del analista como variable imposible de valorar como alguien sujeto a estatus, rutina o presunción.

Resulta importante valorar las controversias suscitadas sobre la rigidez en los límites personales del analista, cómo deben tratarse los momentos de crisis y la eficacia de la confrontación tanto a nivel cuantitativo como cualitativo. Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual elemento discordante es la larga duración del tratamiento psicoanalítico, resultando innecesario ante tratamientos igualmente eficaces en menor tiempo.

La psicoterapia enfocada a la transferencia PET es una forma de terapia psicoanalítica que data de los años 60 enraizada en Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual conceptos de Otto Kernberg sobre el TLP y su estructura subyacente estructura de la personalidad borderline. Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual trabaja en la sesión en la relación paciente-terapeuta.

La psicoterapia basada en la mentalización MBT o TBMdesarrollada por Peter Fonagy y Antony Bateman, se basa en la asunción de que los afectados por el trastorno límite de la personalidad tienen una distorsión del apego debido a problemas en las relaciones paterno-filiales en la infancia. Se piensa que el fracaso en la adquisición de una adecuada more info es la base de los problemas con el control de los impulsos en los pacientes con TLP, así como de su inestabilidad emocional y sus dificultades para mantener relaciones íntimas.

La terapia familiar o la psicoeducación familiar puede ayudar a educar a los miembros de la familia Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual relación al TLP, mejorando la comunicación familiar y la resolución de problemas en su seno, proporcionando apoyo a los miembros de la familia para abordar la enfermedad de su ser querido. Hay dos patrones de implicación familiar que puede ayudar a los clínicos a planear intervenciones desde la familia: la sobreimplicación y la negligencia.

Los pacientes de TLP que Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual encuentran en familias sobreimplicadas tienen que luchar a menudo con temas de dependencia, negación o por enfado de los padres. Si la afección comórbida afectiva consiste principalmente en ansiedad, se pueden prescribir benzodiacepinas.

Para desregulaciones y alteraciones de la conducta y de la percepción se emplean los neurolépticos. En algunos casos especialmente severos en los que existe comorbilidad con trastornos del eje I, en especial depresión grave refractaria a la farmacoterapia, se puede llegar a emplear la terapia electroconvulsiva.

Los antidepresivos del tipo Inhibidor selectivo de la recaptación de la serotonina ISRS ha demostrado en ensayos controlados al azar que mejoran los síntomas comórbidos de la ansiedad y la depresión. Se ha dicho que la nueva generación de antipsicóticos atípicos tienen un perfil de efectos secundarios mejor que el de los antipsicóticos típicos. Los antipsicóticos también se usan muchas veces para tratar las distorsiones del pensamiento o las falsas percepciones.

El uso a largo plazo de antipsicóticos es particularmente controvertido. Hay numerosos efectos secundarios en la medicación antigua, singularmente la discinesia.

Se han realizado estudios para evaluar el empleo de algunos anticonvulsivos en el tratamiento de la sintomatología del TLP. Se han observado en particular dificultades en las relaciones entre los cuidadores y los individuos diagnosticados con TLP.

Existen retos importantes en el tratamiento del TLP, por ejemplo el referente a los cuidados hospitalarios. Algunas psicoterapias, por ejemplo la TDC, han sido desarrolladas parcialmente para evitar los problemas con la sensibilidad interpersonal y mantener una relación terapéutica.

Las psicoterapias y la medicación forma parte del contexto completo de los servicios de salud mental y las necesidades psicosociales relacionadas con el TLP. Se podrían usar muchas otras estrategias, incluyendo técnicas de la medicina alternativaBorderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual y puesta a punto Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual, incluyendo deportes de equipo, técnicas de terapia ocupacionalincluyendo artes creativas y dar estructura a la rutina de los días, en particular a través del empleo -ayudando con los sentimientos chicas pusieron las punto se a competencia por ejemplo la autoeficacia, teniendo un rol social y siendo valorados por los otros para aumentar la autoestima.

Los servicios psicológicos basados en grupos animan a los clientes a socializarse y participar en actividades tanto en solitario como en grupo. Esto Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual ser en centros de día.

Las comunidades terapéuticas son un ejemplo de esto, particularmente en Europa. También hay muchos grupos de ayuda mutua o de consejeros dirigidos por y para individuos con TLP. Hasta el momento no se había evaluado el coste social del TLP. Las visit web page Escalofrío en la noche y Atracción fatal son dos de los ejemplos citados, así como el libro y película Inocencia interrumpida.

No obstante, en cada caso se muestran distintos grados de agresividad con respecto Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual otros o a ellos mismos. Fundaciones de ayuda e investigación de trastornos de la personalidad de familiares de afectados :. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Para otras acepciones, véase Borderline desambiguación. La información suministrada ha quedado obsoleta o es insuficiente. Este aviso fue puesto el 2 de abril de Véase también: Litio.

Artículo principal: Anexo:Personajes ficticios con un trastorno de personalidad. DOI: Accedida el ISBN Behave Net. Widiger y Myrna M. Blazer, L. George, et al. Journal of Personality Disorders 4 3 : Washington, D. Bender Why are women diagnosed borderline more than men? Psychiatr Q 74 4 : Ann N Y Acad Sci. J Here. Neurosci Lett. Bbw jessica imelda gets fucked.

Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. Los compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante de la cascarilla de garbanzo fueron evidentes, predominando los taninos condensados totales con El contenido de proteína y grasa fue de 4. En conclusión, la cascarilla de garbanzo tiene propiedades nutricionales y funcionales que pueden ser consideradas en el diseño de nuevos productos alimenticios para mejorar la salud de los consumidores.

Nutritional composition, phenolic Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual and antioxidant capacity of chickpea Cicer arietinum husk. The chemical composition, minerals, neutral sugars, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in the chickpea husk. The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of chickpea husk was evident, predominating condensed tannins with a total content of The content of protein and fat was 4.

In conclusion, chick pea husk has nutritional and functional properties that can be considered in the design of new food products to improve the health of consumers. Key words: Chemical composition, dietary fiber, neutral sugars, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, Cicer arietinum. La cascarilla, pericarpio o cubierta de las leguminosas normalmente son destinadas como alimento para ganado después del procesamiento del grano.

Este tipo de industrias generan residuos con potencial antioxidante, antimicrobiano, así Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual compuestos bioactivos, tal es el caso de la cascarilla de garbanzo.

Por su parte, los compuestos fenó- licos son metabolitos secundarios esenciales para el desarrollo y crecimiento de las plantas, usados como mecanismo de defensa. Dos muestras de 6. El contenido de fibra dietaria total FDT fue determinado basado en el método En la determinación de minerales método Los elementos de K y Na se analizaron por emisión de flama a La determinación del contenido de celulosa se basó en una curva de calibración con glucosa y los resultados se expresaron en porcentaje.

En la extracción de fenólicos ligados, el pellet recuperado de la obtención de fenólicos libres fue tratado con 5 mL de NaOH 2M, flujo de argón por 30 s y agitado a rpm por 4 h.

Bangaila Xxx Watch SEX Videos brickleberry sex. En flavonoides totales el contenido de la fracción ligada y libre fue con 0. En el contenido de taninos condensados la fracción libre y ligada arrojaron valores de 7. TABLA 1. TABLA 2. TABLA 3. Khan et al. Bose y Shams-Ud-Din 11 utilizaron cascarilla de garbanzo a diferentes concentraciones en la formulación de galletas tipo cracker biscuits y observaron un incremento del 2. Sandberg 14 evaluó el contenido de minerales en grano entero de garbanzo y reportó valores de 69, 35, , y ppm para Fe, Zn, Ca y Mg, respectivamente, siendo los niveles de Fe y Zn cercanos a lo encontrado en el presente estudio, sin embargo sus niveles de Ca y Zn son inferiores a nuestros resultados. En este sentido, Wang et al. Los compuestos fenólicos ligados se encuentran interaccionando con las hemicelulosas presentes en la fibra dietaria mediante un enlace tipo éster, lo cual explica su mayor contenido en las fracciones ligadas sometidas a condiciones de alcalinidad durante su extracción, ya que bajo estas condiciones se lleva a cabo la ruptura de este enlace Segev et al. Diversos estudios han empleado diferentes técnicas como el descascarillado del grano, germinado, remojo y molienda con la finalidad de disminuir el tiempo de cocción, mejorar el sabor, la biodisponibilidad de minerales, proteínas y otros nutrientes, sin embargo cabe resaltar que esta acción afecta considerablemente la pérdida de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en este material vegetal Éstos se clasifican en taninos hidrolizables y taninos condesados Han y Baik 22 reportaron para el grano de garbanzo una actividad antioxidante por ABTS en la fracción libre y ligada de 1. Ziu-Ul-Haq et al. Finalmente, también presenta contenidos elevados de compuestos fenólicos y altos niveles de capacidad antioxidante. Por estas características, la cascarilla de garbanzo puede considerarse con un buen valor nutritivo y funcional apto para mejorar la salud de los consumidores. También es posible considerar la cascarilla del garbanzo como una alternativa para potencializar la funcionalidad de otros alimentos. Food Chem. Minor components of pulses and their potential impact on human health. Food Res Int. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of legume hulls. Grain legumes a boon to human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Tech. Dietary polyphenols and the prevention of diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. The estimation of carbohydrates in plants extracts by anthrone. Biochem J. Acidos fenólicos con actividad antioxidante en salvado de maíz y salvado de trigo. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios. Chromatic, phenolic and antioxidant properties of Sorghum bicolor genotypes. Not Bot Horti Agrobo. The effect of chickpea Cicer arietinum husk on the properties of cracker biscuits. J Bangladesh Agril Univ. Dietary fiber profile of food legumes. Sarhad J Agric. Nutritional value of chickpea. In: Chickpea breeding and management. Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. Brit J Nutr. Effect of cooking on the composition of beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. Determination of Mono, and oligosaccharides in legumes by high performance liquid chromatography using an amino-bonded silica column. J Agric Food Chem. Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Release of covalently bound ferulic acid from fiber in the human colon. Determination of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity in colored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. J Food Sci. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: a comprehensive review. Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. Int J Mol Sci. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of lentils Lens culinaris , chickpeas Cicer arietinum L. Int J Food Sci Tech. Antioxidant potential of Desi chickpea varieties commonly consumed in Pakistan. J Food Lipids. Durante la celebración de la Tercera Conferencia sobre los Problemas de Nutrición en la América Latina, en , se consideró extraoficialmente la creación de una revista latinoamericana de nutrición. En Noviembre de se celebra en Caracas las Primeras Jornadas Venezolanas de Nutrición y allí se plantea la necesidad de la creación de una revista latinoamericana con el fin de centralizar en ella los numerosos trabajos que se elaboran en el hemisferio, ya que la mayoría de ellos se encuentran dispersos en publicaciones de difícil acceso. En consonancia con este criterio, durante el Congreso de Nutrición del Hemisferio Occidental celebrado en Noviembre de en Chicago, Illinois, se funda la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición, SLAN, y uno de sus principales objetivos es la publicación de una revista que recoja las investigaciones que sobre nutrición se llevan a cabo en Latinoamérica. En un hermoso gesto, el Gobierno de Venezuela, en comunicación firmada por el Dr. Conrado F. Cito textualmente parte de la comunicación del Dr. A continuación la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición inicia en Caracas la publicación de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición bajo la responsabilidad editorial del Dr. Ricardo Bressani desempeña el cargo de Editor General. En la Evaluación Integral de , ALAN obtiene una calificación de 80 puntos, para quedar en el quinto lugar sobre un total de 22 revistas. La presencia de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición como órgano divulgativo oficial de la SLAN, ha sido relevante en estos eventos científicos. A continuación un listado de los 17 Congresos de la SLAN realizados, quien lo presidió, ciudad, país y fecha. Congreso I. José E. Dutra de Oliveira. Caracas, Venezuela. Septiembre Congreso II. Fernando Monckeberg B. Viña del Mar, Chile. Diciembre Congreso III. Antonio Bacigalupo. Guatemala, Guatemala. Congreso IV. Werner Jaffé. Noviembre Congreso V. Hector Bourges. Puebla, México. Agosto Congreso VI. Juan Claudio Sanahuja. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Congreso VII. Alfredo Lam Sanchez. Brasilia, Brasil. Congreso VIII. Sergio Valiente. Congreso IX. Jaime Ariza Macía. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Congreso X. Eleazar Lara Pantin. Congreso XI. Congreso XII. Alejandro O Donnell. Congreso XIII. Acapulco, México. Congreso XIV. Helio Vannuchi. Florianópolis, Brasil. Congreso XV. Eduardo Atalah Samur. Santiago, Chile. Congreso XVI. La Habana, Cuba. Congreso XVII. María N. Punta Cana, R. Universidad Central de Venezuela. Universidad Simón Bolívar. Fundación Bengoa para la Alimentación y Nutrición. Caracas Venezuela. El uso de referencias nacionales e internacionales para diagnosticar el estado nutricional es una discusión de larga data, debido a las discrepancias en los resultados. Este estudio comparativo fue aplicado sobre una subpoblación de la base de datos de la Unidad de Bioantropología, Actividad Física y Salud, de adolescentes femeninas, escolarizadas, entre 10 y 15 años, de distintas regiones venezolanas. Se calculó el coeficiente Kappa ponderado para medir la concordancia del IMC por ambas referencias, se determinó la precisión del IMC en cada caso, utilizando medidas de sensibilidad y especificidad. Se estimaron razones de verosimilitud diagnóstica para comparar el desempeño de ambos clasificadores de composición corporal. Palabras clave: Menarquia, composición corporal, concordancias, razones de verosimilitud, referencia nacional e internacional, Venezuela. Concordance between national and international bodymass index as a predictor of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal adolescents. Use of national and international references for the diagnosis of nutritional status is controversial. Concordance between national and international body mass index as predictors of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal female adolescents ages , classified according to occurrence of menarche, that were part of the database of the bioanthropology, physical activity and health unit, were evaluated. The weighted Kappa coefficient was applied to evaluate the concordance between BMI by national and international references, as well as to assess the precision of BMI by means of sensibility and specificity. Additionally, diagnostic verisimilitude ratio was estimated to measure the efficiency of both references in the classification of body composition. The weighted Kappa showed greater concordance in UFA 0. The presence of menarche increased the concordances: UFA 0. The positive and negative diagnostic likelihood ratios were consistently greater than one, for fat and muscle area, especially when using ENCDH reference. Key words: Menarche, body composition, weighted Kappa coefficient, diagnostic likelihood ratios, international and national growth references, Venezuela. Recibido: El uso de este indicador en un comienzo estuvo restringido a la evaluación del adulto, pero en tiempos recientes ha sido igualmente recomendado para la valoración de niños y adolescentes 5, 6 , ya que el IMC permite estimar los cambios de la adiposidad en la etapa del crecimiento, al presentar una alta tendencia a la canalización 7. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo de acuerdo con las normas deontológicas reconocidas por la declaración de Helsinski Las variables consideradas para este estudio fueron las siguientes: peso en kg P , talla en metros T , pliegue tríceps en mm PlTr , circunferencia media del brazo en cm CB , edad en años E y presencia o no de la menarquia. Para efectos de interpretación se ha convenido en asumir el siguiente criterio para la concordancia: pobre 0,,2 , débil 0,,4 , moderada 0,,6 , buena 0,,8 y muy buena 0,8 -1,0. A nivel mundial se han llevado a cabo diversas reuniones de expertos para consensuar distintos criterios técnicos y metodológicos, en torno al uso e interpretación de los indicadores antropométricos en la investigación científica y en la definición de políticas de salud de niños y adolescentes, relacionadas con el estado nutricional de este grupo poblacional. Adicionalmente, se consideró la presencia o ausencia de la menarquia como un factor importante para evaluar los resultados de la predicción. Este comportamiento de las reglas queda manifiesto también en las razones de verosimilitud diagnósticas positivas, siempre mayores en ENCDH que en OMS. Esta eficiencia se traduce en la escogencia de la referencia diagnóstica apropiada, ya que una clasifica mejor a los normales y la otra mejor a la malnutrición. Se ha llegado a conclusiones similares en estudios realizados en poblaciones belgas, norteamericanas y venezolanas, basados en los diferentes grados de maduración, los cuales inciden en modificaciones de la composición corporal que alteran a su vez, la valoración del estado nutricional Estos resultados vendrían a fortalecer la propuesta de Atalah y colaboradores 32 , en cuanto a la necesidad de retomar mesas de trabajo para dilucidar el tema del uso de referencias locales versus internacionales, ya que las diferencias encontradas así lo justifican. A better index of body adiposity. Obesity ; 19 5 Am J Clin Nutr ; 79 5 : Body mass index cut offs to define thickness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ ; : Sensibilidad y especificidad de indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad y distribución de grasa en niños y adolescentes venezolanos. Interciencia ; 34 2 : Validity of the Body Mass Index as an indicator of the risk and presence of overweight in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr ; 70 Suppl. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BMI z score is the optimal measure of annual adiposity change in elementary school children. An Hum Biol ; 38 6 : Eveleth P. Valores de referencia. Caracas ; pp. Maduración Temprana. Factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad?. Patterns of body mass and muscular components in children and adolescents of Caracas. Acta Med Auxol ; 33 3 Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: Comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56 3 : Arch Dis Child ; 96 10 : The use of local reference growth charts for clinical use or universal standard: a balanced appraisal. Endocrinol Invest ; 35 2 : Méndez Castellano H. Proyecto Venezuela. Méndez Castellano editor. Escuela Técnica Popular Don Bosco. Tomo II. Caracas ; p. World Health Organization. Disponibleen: www. World Medical Association. Fortaleza, Brazil Protocolo Internacional para la Valoración Antropométrica. Stewart, M. Marfell-Jones, T. Olds, H. Publicado por ISAK. Biblioteca Nacional de Australia ; p. Indices of relative weight and obesity. Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas. Arm muscle and arm fat areas: reference values for children and adolescents. Project Venezuela. Auxology 94 Humanbiol Budapest. Macías de Tomei C. Evaluación de la maduración Sexual. En: M. López, I. Izaguirre, C. Macías editoras. Crecimiento y MaduraciónFísica. Editorial MédicaPanamericana. Caracas , pp. Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability. Se piensa que el fracaso en la adquisición de una adecuada mentalización es la base de los problemas con el control de los impulsos en los pacientes con TLP, así como de su inestabilidad emocional y sus dificultades para mantener relaciones íntimas. La terapia familiar o la psicoeducación familiar puede ayudar a educar a los miembros de la familia en relación al TLP, mejorando la comunicación familiar y la resolución de problemas en su seno, proporcionando apoyo a los miembros de la familia para abordar la enfermedad de su ser querido. Hay dos patrones de implicación familiar que puede ayudar a los clínicos a planear intervenciones desde la familia: la sobreimplicación y la negligencia. Los pacientes de TLP que se encuentran en familias sobreimplicadas tienen que luchar a menudo con temas de dependencia, negación o por enfado de los padres. Si la afección comórbida afectiva consiste principalmente en ansiedad, se pueden prescribir benzodiacepinas. Para desregulaciones y alteraciones de la conducta y de la percepción se emplean los neurolépticos. En algunos casos especialmente severos en los que existe comorbilidad con trastornos del eje I, en especial depresión grave refractaria a la farmacoterapia, se puede llegar a emplear la terapia electroconvulsiva. Los antidepresivos del tipo Inhibidor selectivo de la recaptación de la serotonina ISRS ha demostrado en ensayos controlados al azar que mejoran los síntomas comórbidos de la ansiedad y la depresión. Se ha dicho que la nueva generación de antipsicóticos atípicos tienen un perfil de efectos secundarios mejor que el de los antipsicóticos típicos. Los antipsicóticos también se usan muchas veces para tratar las distorsiones del pensamiento o las falsas percepciones. El uso a largo plazo de antipsicóticos es particularmente controvertido. Hay numerosos efectos secundarios en la medicación antigua, singularmente la discinesia. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar el empleo de algunos anticonvulsivos en el tratamiento de la sintomatología del TLP. Se han observado en particular dificultades en las relaciones entre los cuidadores y los individuos diagnosticados con TLP. Existen retos importantes en el tratamiento del TLP, por ejemplo el referente a los cuidados hospitalarios. Algunas psicoterapias, por ejemplo la TDC, han sido desarrolladas parcialmente para evitar los problemas con la sensibilidad interpersonal y mantener una relación terapéutica. Las psicoterapias y la medicación forma parte del contexto completo de los servicios de salud mental y las necesidades psicosociales relacionadas con el TLP. Se podrían usar muchas otras estrategias, incluyendo técnicas de la medicina alternativa , ejercicio y puesta a punto física, incluyendo deportes de equipo, técnicas de terapia ocupacional , incluyendo artes creativas y dar estructura a la rutina de los días, en particular a través del empleo -ayudando con los sentimientos de competencia por ejemplo la autoeficacia, teniendo un rol social y siendo valorados por los otros para aumentar la autoestima. Los servicios psicológicos basados en grupos animan a los clientes a socializarse y participar en actividades tanto en solitario como en grupo. Esto puede ser en centros de día. Las comunidades terapéuticas son un ejemplo de esto, particularmente en Europa. También hay muchos grupos de ayuda mutua o de consejeros dirigidos por y para individuos con TLP. Hasta el momento no se había evaluado el coste social del TLP. Las películas Escalofrío en la noche y Atracción fatal son dos de los ejemplos citados, así como el libro y película Inocencia interrumpida. No obstante, en cada caso se muestran distintos grados de agresividad con respecto a otros o a ellos mismos. Fundaciones de ayuda e investigación de trastornos de la personalidad de familiares de afectados :. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Para otras acepciones, véase Borderline desambiguación. La información suministrada ha quedado obsoleta o es insuficiente. Este aviso fue puesto el 2 de abril de Véase también: Litio. Artículo principal: Anexo:Personajes ficticios con un trastorno de personalidad. DOI: Accedida el ISBN Behave Net. Widiger y Myrna M. Blazer, L. George, et al. Journal of Personality Disorders 4 3 : Washington, D. Bender Why are women diagnosed borderline more than men? Psychiatr Q 74 4 : Ann N Y Acad Sci. J Neurosci. Neurosci Lett. Epub Sep Koenigsberg, L. Emotion, plasticity, context and regulation: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, ; 6 : Biological Psychiatry 54 11 : Psychiatry Res. Reduced size and abnormal asymmetry of parietal cortex in women with borderline personality disorder. Frankenburg Journal of Personality Disorder. Accedido el Archivado desde el original el 19 de julio de Consultado el 27 de enero de Am J Psychiatry. Medicinas y Suplementos. Consultado el 1 de febrero de J Food Lipids. Durante la celebración de la Tercera Conferencia sobre los Problemas de Nutrición en la América Latina, en , se consideró extraoficialmente la creación de una revista latinoamericana de nutrición. En Noviembre de se celebra en Caracas las Primeras Jornadas Venezolanas de Nutrición y allí se plantea la necesidad de la creación de una revista latinoamericana con el fin de centralizar en ella los numerosos trabajos que se elaboran en el hemisferio, ya que la mayoría de ellos se encuentran dispersos en publicaciones de difícil acceso. En consonancia con este criterio, durante el Congreso de Nutrición del Hemisferio Occidental celebrado en Noviembre de en Chicago, Illinois, se funda la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición, SLAN, y uno de sus principales objetivos es la publicación de una revista que recoja las investigaciones que sobre nutrición se llevan a cabo en Latinoamérica. En un hermoso gesto, el Gobierno de Venezuela, en comunicación firmada por el Dr. Conrado F. Cito textualmente parte de la comunicación del Dr. A continuación la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición inicia en Caracas la publicación de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición bajo la responsabilidad editorial del Dr. Ricardo Bressani desempeña el cargo de Editor General. En la Evaluación Integral de , ALAN obtiene una calificación de 80 puntos, para quedar en el quinto lugar sobre un total de 22 revistas. La presencia de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición como órgano divulgativo oficial de la SLAN, ha sido relevante en estos eventos científicos. A continuación un listado de los 17 Congresos de la SLAN realizados, quien lo presidió, ciudad, país y fecha. Congreso I. José E. Dutra de Oliveira. Caracas, Venezuela. Septiembre Congreso II. Fernando Monckeberg B. Viña del Mar, Chile. Diciembre Congreso III. Antonio Bacigalupo. Guatemala, Guatemala. Congreso IV. Werner Jaffé. Noviembre Congreso V. Hector Bourges. Puebla, México. Agosto Congreso VI. Juan Claudio Sanahuja. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Congreso VII. Alfredo Lam Sanchez. Brasilia, Brasil. Congreso VIII. Sergio Valiente. Congreso IX. Jaime Ariza Macía. San Juan, Puerto Rico. Congreso X. Eleazar Lara Pantin. Congreso XI. Congreso XII. Alejandro O Donnell. Congreso XIII. Acapulco, México. Congreso XIV. Helio Vannuchi. Florianópolis, Brasil. Congreso XV. Eduardo Atalah Samur. Santiago, Chile. Congreso XVI. La Habana, Cuba. Congreso XVII. María N. Punta Cana, R. Universidad Central de Venezuela. Universidad Simón Bolívar. Fundación Bengoa para la Alimentación y Nutrición. Caracas Venezuela. El uso de referencias nacionales e internacionales para diagnosticar el estado nutricional es una discusión de larga data, debido a las discrepancias en los resultados. Este estudio comparativo fue aplicado sobre una subpoblación de la base de datos de la Unidad de Bioantropología, Actividad Física y Salud, de adolescentes femeninas, escolarizadas, entre 10 y 15 años, de distintas regiones venezolanas. Se calculó el coeficiente Kappa ponderado para medir la concordancia del IMC por ambas referencias, se determinó la precisión del IMC en cada caso, utilizando medidas de sensibilidad y especificidad. Se estimaron razones de verosimilitud diagnóstica para comparar el desempeño de ambos clasificadores de composición corporal. Palabras clave: Menarquia, composición corporal, concordancias, razones de verosimilitud, referencia nacional e internacional, Venezuela. Concordance between national and international bodymass index as a predictor of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal adolescents. Use of national and international references for the diagnosis of nutritional status is controversial. Concordance between national and international body mass index as predictors of body composition in premenarcheal and menarcheal female adolescents ages , classified according to occurrence of menarche, that were part of the database of the bioanthropology, physical activity and health unit, were evaluated. The weighted Kappa coefficient was applied to evaluate the concordance between BMI by national and international references, as well as to assess the precision of BMI by means of sensibility and specificity. Additionally, diagnostic verisimilitude ratio was estimated to measure the efficiency of both references in the classification of body composition. The weighted Kappa showed greater concordance in UFA 0. The presence of menarche increased the concordances: UFA 0. The positive and negative diagnostic likelihood ratios were consistently greater than one, for fat and muscle area, especially when using ENCDH reference. Key words: Menarche, body composition, weighted Kappa coefficient, diagnostic likelihood ratios, international and national growth references, Venezuela. Recibido: El uso de este indicador en un comienzo estuvo restringido a la evaluación del adulto, pero en tiempos recientes ha sido igualmente recomendado para la valoración de niños y adolescentes 5, 6 , ya que el IMC permite estimar los cambios de la adiposidad en la etapa del crecimiento, al presentar una alta tendencia a la canalización 7. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo de acuerdo con las normas deontológicas reconocidas por la declaración de Helsinski Las variables consideradas para este estudio fueron las siguientes: peso en kg P , talla en metros T , pliegue tríceps en mm PlTr , circunferencia media del brazo en cm CB , edad en años E y presencia o no de la menarquia. Para efectos de interpretación se ha convenido en asumir el siguiente criterio para la concordancia: pobre 0,,2 , débil 0,,4 , moderada 0,,6 , buena 0,,8 y muy buena 0,8 -1,0. A nivel mundial se han llevado a cabo diversas reuniones de expertos para consensuar distintos criterios técnicos y metodológicos, en torno al uso e interpretación de los indicadores antropométricos en la investigación científica y en la definición de políticas de salud de niños y adolescentes, relacionadas con el estado nutricional de este grupo poblacional. Adicionalmente, se consideró la presencia o ausencia de la menarquia como un factor importante para evaluar los resultados de la predicción. Este comportamiento de las reglas queda manifiesto también en las razones de verosimilitud diagnósticas positivas, siempre mayores en ENCDH que en OMS. Esta eficiencia se traduce en la escogencia de la referencia diagnóstica apropiada, ya que una clasifica mejor a los normales y la otra mejor a la malnutrición. Se ha llegado a conclusiones similares en estudios realizados en poblaciones belgas, norteamericanas y venezolanas, basados en los diferentes grados de maduración, los cuales inciden en modificaciones de la composición corporal que alteran a su vez, la valoración del estado nutricional Estos resultados vendrían a fortalecer la propuesta de Atalah y colaboradores 32 , en cuanto a la necesidad de retomar mesas de trabajo para dilucidar el tema del uso de referencias locales versus internacionales, ya que las diferencias encontradas así lo justifican. A better index of body adiposity. Obesity ; 19 5 Am J Clin Nutr ; 79 5 : Body mass index cut offs to define thickness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ ; : Sensibilidad y especificidad de indicadores antropométricos de adiposidad y distribución de grasa en niños y adolescentes venezolanos. Interciencia ; 34 2 : Validity of the Body Mass Index as an indicator of the risk and presence of overweight in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr ; 70 Suppl. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BMI z score is the optimal measure of annual adiposity change in elementary school children. An Hum Biol ; 38 6 : Eveleth P. Valores de referencia. Caracas ; pp. Maduración Temprana. Factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad?. Patterns of body mass and muscular components in children and adolescents of Caracas. Acta Med Auxol ; 33 3 Trends in overweight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: Comparison of three definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr ; 56 3 : Arch Dis Child ; 96 10 : The use of local reference growth charts for clinical use or universal standard: a balanced appraisal. Endocrinol Invest ; 35 2 : Méndez Castellano H. Proyecto Venezuela. Méndez Castellano editor. Escuela Técnica Popular Don Bosco. Tomo II. Caracas ; p. World Health Organization. Disponibleen: www. World Medical Association. Fortaleza, Brazil Protocolo Internacional para la Valoración Antropométrica. Stewart, M. Marfell-Jones, T. Olds, H. Publicado por ISAK. Biblioteca Nacional de Australia ; p. Indices of relative weight and obesity. Arm anthropometry in nutritional assessment: nomogram for rapid calculation of muscle circumference and cross-sectional muscle and fat areas. Arm muscle and arm fat areas: reference values for children and adolescents. Project Venezuela. Auxology 94 Humanbiol Budapest. Macías de Tomei C. Evaluación de la maduración Sexual. En: M. López, I. Izaguirre, C. Macías editoras. Crecimiento y MaduraciónFísica. Editorial MédicaPanamericana. Caracas , pp. Fleiss JL, Cohen J. The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability. EducPsycholMeas; 33 3 : Pepe MS. Oxford University Press. Oxford Statistical Science Series. Maduración temprana: factor de riesgo de sobrepeso y obesidad durante la pubertad? Arch Latinoam Nutr; 49 1 : Comparing three body mass index classification systems to assess overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Malina R. Workshop Report. Institute of Medicine. The National Academics Press. Washington, DC , pp: The predictive value of childhood body mass index values for overweight at age 35 y. Am J Clinical Nutr ; 59 4 Body mass index variations: Centiles from birth to 87 years. Europ J Clin Nutr ; 45 1 Arch Venez Puer Pediatr ; 75 2 Nutr Hosp ; 27 1 Moringa oleifera: Revisión sobre aplicaciones y usos en alimentos. Universidad de Murcia, España. Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia. Las diferentes estructuras de la planta hoja, raíz, corteza, flores, vainas La literatura científica recoge numerosos efectos saludables de las diferentes partes de la moringa tales como efecto antioxidante y antiinflamatorio o bactericida entre otros. En el sector de la panadería el objetivo suele ser el enriquecimiento nutricional del alimento. Moringa oleifera : A review of food ap plications. Moringa oleifera is a tree native to certain re gions Asia and Africa, adaptable to territories of hot weather and low precipitation rates. In some areas diffe rent parts of the tree leaves, roots, bark, flowers, pods These structures have also a high nutritional value vita mins, minerals and essential amino acids among others giving an important potential role in the prevention of malnutrition. The scientific literature describes many sa lutary effects of the different parts of the moringa such as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory or bactericide, among others. With the aim of bringing the properties of moringa to consumers, a few studies have been developed with different foods, mainly meat and bread, in which the moringa is incorporated as an ingredient leaf, seed, ex tracts, etc. In meat products it is used as a preservative and antioxidant additive with very good results without affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product. In the field of bakery the objective is usually as nutritional fortification. In these cases the sensory characteristics are variable depending on the dose used and the product under study bread, cookies, etc. The food industry has an inte resting challenge ahead: the incorporation of moringa as a natural ingredient, as a substituting different classical preservatives and antioxidant and at the same time prepa ring food commodities, such as bread, with high nutritio nal value, ideal for certain population groups in risk of malnutrition. Key words: Moringa oleifera , antioxidant, food, meat products, bread. Recibe diferentes nombres, tales como Drums tick tree, Horse Radish tree o Ben oil tree 2. Los motivos para esta gran variedad de funciones pueden ser debido a su alto poder nutritivo. Propiedades biológicas de la planta Moringa oleifera. Estudios in vivo de actividad antiinflamatorio y antioxidante. Los efectos antiinflamatorios se deben principlamente a la gran cantidad de flavonoides presentes en la hoja de moringa, donde se han descrito hasta doce compuestos distintos, derivados de la quercitina y kaempferol 7. Minaiyan et al 8 investigaron la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto semillas de moringa en el tratamiento de colitis ulcerosa inducida. También estudiaron el daño microscópico determinando la severidad y extensión de la inflamación y el daño de las criptas. El estudio se llevó a cabo con 54 ratas Wistar macho de entre g de peso divididas en nueve grupos. El grupo 3 de referencia recibió la inducción y tratamiento farmacológico prednisolona. El tiempo de ensayo fue de cinco días. Tumer et al 10 estudiaron el mecanismo por el cual las hojas de moringa ejercen su función antioxidante. El extracto de las hojas se separó en dos fases, una rica en polifenoles y otra en isotiocianatos. Tras la adición del extracto y evaluación del mismo los autores observaron que la en fracción rica en polifenoles hubo una mayor actividad de la NAQO1 mientras que la fracción rica en isotiocianatos produjo mayor absorción de radicales de oxígeno. De esta manera los autores explican que la actividad antioxidante de la hoja de moringa y su potencial terapéutico se debe, en parte, a la doble forma de actuación descrita. Vasanth et al 11 valoraron in vitro la actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto etanólico de la corteza del tronco de la moringa. Se realizaron seis cultivos celulares: un control negativo sin exposición LPS referencia , un control positivo con exposición a LPS 1. Waterman et al 12 , evidenciaron que, a nivel cromosómico, los isotiocianatos presentes en un concentrado de hojas frescas de moringa modulan la expresión génica para la liberación de sustancias pro inflamatorias. Los autores obtuvieron el extracto metanólico de las hojas de moringa, del cual separaron mediante un HPLC semipreparativa la fracción rica en isotiocianatos. Se prepararon a su vez dos cultivos celulares, uno sin tratamiento ni exposición control negativo y otro con exposición y sin tratamiento control positivo. De esta forma valoraron la pertinencia del concentrado de hojas de moringa como producto de uso alimentario para disminuir la inflamación vascular asociada a enfermedades crónicas. Cómo prevenir e intervenir en situaciones de acoso escolar Argentina Paidós AA. Boletín Oficial. Hacia un plan nacional contra la discriminación Argentina Presidencia de la Nación Fronteras sexuales. Una visión marxista Argentina Alternativa Faur, Eleonor comp. Mujeres y varones en la Argentina de hoy. Jorge Acha. Apuntes sobre la homosexualidad para cerrar el caso Argentina Wolkowicz Meccia, Ernesto El tiempo no para. De la pantalla grande al living de la casa dos copias Argentina Paidós AA. Informe anual Argentina Fsoc-Inst. Cuerpxs en fuga. Críticas en torno a la patologización de la transexualidad España Egales AA. Postmodern lesbian politics EE. Hacia un imaginario inclusivo Argentina Del dragón AA. Parentesco Argentina Ají de pollo AA. Sexualidad femenina y procesos de pensamiento dos copias Argentina Finnegans AA. Obras completas. Volumen 10 Argentina Amorrortu Maldavsky, David comp. Buenos Aires. Ciudad con migrantes. Sexualidades migrantes. La revolución de las mariposas. Infomes y testimonios. Debates en la cultura argentina 3. Se trata de nosotras. Género, esclavitud y tortura. Protocolo Organizaciones Populares. Violencia contra las mujeres en relaciones de pareja [violencia sexual] Argentina Pixel Laqueur, Thomas Sexo solitario. Cómo prevenir e intervenir en situaciones de acoso escolar Argentina Paidós AA. Boletín Oficial. Hacia un plan nacional contra la discriminación Argentina Presidencia de la Nación Fronteras sexuales. Una visión marxista Argentina Alternativa Faur, Eleonor comp. Mujeres y varones en la Argentina de hoy. Jorge Acha. Apuntes sobre la homosexualidad para cerrar el caso Argentina Wolkowicz Meccia, Ernesto El tiempo no para..

Enseguida, el pH fue ajustado a 2. El sobrenadante fue recuperado y se Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual 5 mL de acetato de etilo en dos ocasiones. Compuestos Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual y capacidad antioxidante Los ensayos de compuestos fenólicos y capacidad antioxidante fueron realizados de acuerdo a López Contreras et al.

Los carbohidratos representaron el mayor contenido en la cascarilla de garbanzo, seguidos por proteína, humedad, cenizas y grasas. El contenido de fibra dietaria total fue de El contenido de minerales encontrado en el presente estudio mostró en mayor proporción fue Ca, seguido por K y Mg Tabla 2 con niveles dey ppm, respectivamente, mientras que Fe y Zn minerales esenciales en la nutrición humana con se encontraron en concentraciones de 83 y 29 ppm, respectivamente.

Compuestos fenólicos y capacidad antioxidante This web page la Tabla 3se observa el contenido de compuestos fenólicos de la cascarilla de garbanzo. En fenoles totales las fracción libre presentó 1. En flavonoides totales el contenido de la fracción ligada y libre fue con 0.

En el contenido de taninos condensados la fracción libre y ligada arrojaron valores de 7. TABLA 1. TABLA 2. TABLA 3. Khan et al. Bose y Shams-Ud-Din 11 utilizaron cascarilla de garbanzo a diferentes concentraciones en la formulación de galletas tipo cracker biscuits y observaron un incremento del 2.

Sandberg 14 evaluó el contenido de minerales en grano entero de garbanzo y Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual valores de 69, 35,y ppm para Fe, Zn, Ca y Mg, respectivamente, siendo los niveles de Fe y Zn cercanos a lo encontrado en el presente estudio, sin embargo sus niveles de Ca y Zn son inferiores a nuestros resultados. En este sentido, Wang et al. Los compuestos fenólicos ligados se encuentran interaccionando con las hemicelulosas presentes en la fibra dietaria mediante un enlace tipo éster, lo cual explica su mayor contenido en las fracciones ligadas sometidas a condiciones de alcalinidad durante su extracción, ya que bajo estas condiciones se lleva a cabo la ruptura de este enlace Segev et al.

Diversos estudios han empleado diferentes técnicas como el descascarillado del grano, germinado, remojo y molienda con la finalidad de disminuir el tiempo de cocción, mejorar el sabor, la biodisponibilidad de minerales, proteínas y otros nutrientes, sin embargo cabe resaltar que esta acción afecta considerablemente la pérdida de los compuestos fenólicos presentes en este material vegetal Éstos se clasifican en taninos hidrolizables y taninos condesados Han y Baik 22 reportaron para el grano de garbanzo una actividad antioxidante por ABTS en la fracción Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual y ligada de 1.

Ziu-Ul-Haq et al. Finalmente, también presenta contenidos elevados de compuestos fenólicos y altos niveles de capacidad antioxidante. Por estas características, la cascarilla de garbanzo puede considerarse con un buen valor nutritivo y funcional apto para mejorar la salud de los consumidores.

También es posible considerar la cascarilla del garbanzo como una alternativa para potencializar la funcionalidad de otros alimentos. Food Chem. Minor components of pulses and their potential impact on human health. Food Res Int. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of legume hulls. Grain legumes a boon to human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Tech. Dietary polyphenols and the Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual of diseases. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.

Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. The estimation of carbohydrates in plants extracts by anthrone. Biochem J. Acidos fenólicos con actividad antioxidante en salvado de maíz y salvado de trigo. Ecosistemas y Recursos Agropecuarios. Chromatic, phenolic and antioxidant properties of Sorghum bicolor genotypes. Not Bot Horti Agrobo.

Trastorno límite de la personalidad

The effect of chickpea Cicer arietinum Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual on the properties of cracker biscuits. J Bangladesh Agril Univ. Dietary fiber profile of food legumes. Sarhad J Agric. Nutritional value of chickpea. In: Chickpea breeding and management. Bioavailability of minerals in legumes. Brit J Nutr. Effect of cooking on the composition of beans Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Determination of Mono, and oligosaccharides in legumes by high performance liquid chromatography using an amino-bonded silica column. J Agric Food Chem. Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Release of covalently bound ferulic acid from fiber in the human colon. Determination of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity in colored chickpea Cicer arietinum L. J Food Sci. Effect of primary processing of cereals and legumes on its nutritional quality: a comprehensive review.

Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. Int J Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual Sci. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of lentils Lens culinarischickpeas Cicer arietinum L.

Int J Food Sci Tech. Antioxidant potential of Desi chickpea varieties commonly consumed in Pakistan. here

Threeway cumshot Watch PORN Movies Lavaplace photos. Pimjai et al. Los autores concluyeron que dosis altas de polvo de hoja de moringa encapsulado 4 g incrementa significativamente la secreción de insulina, resultando un tratamiento potencial de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Protector de tejidos en intoxicaciones por arsénico. Tras las 16 semanas de duración del experimento se evidencia en el grupo control positivo frente al control negativo el aumento de triglicéridos Este estudio demuestra la efectividad de la hoja de moringa en la reversión de los daños causados por la intoxicación por arsénico. Lamou et al. Los animales se sometieron a pruebas de resistencia de flotación con peso añadido y otras a resistencia sin peso. Tras el ejercicio también hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos tratados y el grupo control en los nive les sanguíneos de lactato De esta manera los au tores concluyen que el extracto acuoso de hoja de mo ringa tiene propiedades anti fatiga frente al ejercicio físico facilitando la movilización de los depósitos de grasa del organismo, retardando el agotamiento de las reservas de glucógeno y disminuyendo la acumulación de lactato y urea en sangre. Propiedades antimicrobianas y purificadoras de agua. También se ha comparado la eficacia antibiótica de extractos de di ferentes especies vegetales hojas de Xanthosoma ma faffa y Moringa oleifera y los frutos de Passiflora edulis demostrado que el extracto de hoja de moringa presenta un actividad antibiótica de mayor espectro in hibiendo el crecimiento de diversas cepas bacterianas gram-multirresistentes Escherichia coli, Enterobactera aerogenes , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomona aeru ginosa y Providencia stuartii siendo E. Nogueira Brilhante et al. El tratamiento con mayor espectro de inhibición fue el realizado con el ex tracto de la vaina, efectivo frente a V. El extracto de semillas resultó ser el menos efec tivo, inhibiendo solamente el crecimiento de V. Dasgupta et al. Su poder desinfectante también se ha demostrado en un estudio realizado por Torondel et al. Se contrastaron un triturado fresco y otro desecado frente al jabón en manos de 15 voluntarios previamente contaminadas con E. Se comparó el efecto inhibitorio de E. En el ensayo con 2 g la reducción logarítmica media fue de 2. Con 3 g la reducción fue de 2. En los primeros se utiliza con un fin nutritivo, mientras que en los segundos con un fin tecnológico, como antioxidante y conservante principalmente. Por el contrario las hojas de moringa eran menos conocidas y consumi das, aun conociendo sus propiedades nutritivas. Los au tores determinaron que esta diferencia se consumo se debía a factores culturales, de disponibilidad y de pre cio, y también por el mayor efecto saciante de la man dioca. Tras el ensayo, los niños prefirieron los snack del grupo C y D. En este caso la adición de los diferentes derivados de la moringa persigue el objetivo de incrementar el valor nutritivo de estos alimentos. Se ha desarrollado pan suplementado con hoja de moringa Por otro lado, a adición de hoja de moringa en polvo con dujo a unas propiedades sensoriales disminuidas pena lizadas por el cambio en el color, sabor y textura. Por este motivo los autores recomendaban la utilización de la hoja de moringa pero con adición de sustancias aro matizantes para enmascarar el sabor de la misma. Respecto al cambio de coloración del pan tras la adi ción de moringa la hoja de moringa, existe otra publi cación de pan enriquecido con espinacas y acelgas En este caso los autores utilizaron concentraciones de 20g y 40g espinacas y acelgas troceadas no molidas por g de harina sin que se produjera, en general, re chazo en las propiedades sensoriales por parte de los consumidores. Es posible que para evitar un rechazo por el color verdoso sea conveniente informar al con sumidor previamente de los cambios y propiedades del pan para evitar el impacto visual o trocear las hojas del producto vegetal a introducir en vez de utilizar un tri turado en polvo para evitar en la medida de lo posible la difusión de color a toda la masa de pan. En otro estudio se incorporó harina de semilla de moringa en pan y galletas En este caso los autores utilizaron harina de semillas de moringa que, previa mente, fueron hervidas y desecadas para eliminar las sustancias responsables del sabor amargo característico de las semillas crudas. Las propiedades nutritivas de panes y galletas ela boradas a partir de las harinas enriquecidas mejoraron notablemente. Las propiedades sensoriales se vieron perjudicadas, tanto en la corteza como en la miga, debido principalmente a la menor cantidad de gluten en la harina resultante. Se describe un sabor semejante al de las nueces, atípico de las galletas. Nwakalor et al. En estos casos se buscó evaluar la eficacia como potencial antimicrobiano y antioxidante, pudiendo ser utilizado como conservante natural. Hazra et al. El extracto se añadió en concentraciones de 1, 1. Las tres preparaciones con el extracto de hoja resultaron tener valores de pH significativamente mayores pH 6. La capacidad de retención de agua también se incrementó de forma significativa al incrementar la dosis de ex tracto hasta la concentración del 1. Esto provocó una menor pérdida de peso tras el cocinado en la misma relación siendo la menor en las hamburguesas enriquecidas al 1. Res pecto al crecimiento microbiano, todas las hamburgue sas mostraron valores muy bajos siendo menores en las preparaciones enriquecidas 2. Otro estudio donde se utiliza el extracto de hoja de moringa como antioxidante es el realizado por Das et al. Para realizar esta comparación se elaboraron dos tipos de hamburguesas, unas con un 0. Tras la elaboración de las hamburguesas se determinaron los niveles de com puestos fenólicos que resultaron ser significativamente mayores en las elaboradas con el extracto de hoja de moringa, lo que justificaría su uso como ingrediente para aumentar el poder antioxidante de las hamburgue sas. A nivel senso rial apariencia, sabor, textura, jugosidad y palatabilidad general los autores describen que con la adición del extracto no hubo pérdida de calidad, siendo aceptadas tras los 15 días de almacenamiento. De esta forma se demuestra la validez del extracto de hoja de Moringa oleifera como antioxidante en las hamburguesas de cabra sin alterar las características sensoriales de las mismas. Al-Juhaimi et al. Las hamburguesas en riquecidas presentaron mayor rendimiento en el coci nado valorado como la relación entre el peso después y antes del cocinado respecto a las hamburguesas con trol. Este rendimiento fue proporcional a la cantidad de harina de semilla añadida, siendo del Estas diferencias se debieron principalmente a la mayor retención de agua Otras variables como la oxidación, pH y creci miento microbiano se analizaron durante el almacena miento a los días 0, 7, 14 y En cuanto a la oxidación, los autores revelan que fue significativamente menor en las hamburguesas con harina de moringa frente a las hamburguesas control al igual que los valores de pH fueron mayores cuanto mayor era la concentración de harina de semilla 5. En un estudio realizado con salchichas de pollo 35 , se sustituyeron los tradicionales antioxidantes químicos BHT por triturado de hoja de moringa. Los autores adicionaron hoja de moringa desecada a la mezcla de salchicha en concentraciones de 0. El crecimiento microbiano de aerobios me sófilos a la semana cinco de almacenamiento fue sig nificativamente menor en las salchichas con 0. En cuanto a las propiedades senso riales las salchichas del grupo control positivo con BHT y las de hoja de moringa al 0. Por lo tanto los autores con cluyeron que un 0. Un estudio desarro llado por Saini et al. La desecación me diante exposición solar fue la que mayores pérdidas causó. La Moringa oleifera ha sido utilizada de forma an cestral como curativo o paliativo de enfermedades de muy diversa índole. Sin embargo son todavía escasos los estudios acerca de los beneficios de la moringa utilizada como ingrediente alimentario. Los estudios en alimentos se centran valorar el incremento de las propiedades nu tritivas y la aceptación por parte del consumidor. Una vez descritas las propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud, el amplio margen de seguri dad en humanos 2 y también la validez como antio xidante y conservante alimentario, es necesario incrementar las investigaciones relativas al efecto sobre el organismo derivado del consumo de estos alimentos enriquecidos, teniendo en cuenta diversas variables como las posibles pérdidas de actividad durante el tra tamiento o la interacción con otros compuestos de los mismos, entre otras. Cultivos promisorios para enfriar el clima y alimentar al mundo. Murcia Review of the Safety and Effi cacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res. Moringa olei fera : A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phyto ther Res. Utilization poten tials of Moringa oleifera in Nigeria: a preliminary as sessment. Fahey JW. Part 1. Health Benefits of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. J Funct Foods. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Avicenna J Phytomed. Mo ringa oleifera Lam. Indian J Exp Biol. Moringa oleifera attenuates the re lease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide stimulated human monocytic cell line. Ind Crops Prod. Stable, water extractable iso thiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate in flammation in vitro. Moringa oleifera Lam. Majalah Kedokteran Bandung. J Med Assoc Thai. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Oxid Med Cell Longev. Korean J Microbiol Biotech. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Antibiofilm potential of flavo noids extracted from Moringa oleifera seed coat against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. J Appl Microbiol. Antibacterial and an tibiotic-modifying activities of three food plants Xan thosoma mafaffa Lam. Vibrio spp. Asian Pac J Trop Med. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract as a sustainable solution for potable water. RSC Adv. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagas car? A study combining a survey and a consumer test. Food and nutrition sciences. Folate fortification of white and whole-grain bread by adding Swiss chard and spinach. Acceptability by consumers. Quality characteris tics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Mo ringa oleifera seed flour. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Effect of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase on the quality of pan bread during storage. Nwakalor CN. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Food Sci Tech Mys. Moringa oleifera leaves extract: a natural antioxidant for retar ding lipid peroxidation in cooked goat meat patties. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of synthetic chemical XVIII -in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo supravital micronucleus assay with butylated hydroxytoluene BHT. Effects of different levels of Moringa Moringa oleifera seed flour on quality attributes of beef burgers. CyTA-J Food. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick Moringa oleifera leaves in her bal chicken sausages. Antioxidant activity of polyphenolic rich Moringa oleifera Lam. Extracts in food systems. J Food Bio chem. Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, toco pherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Mo ringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product. Recibido: Aceptado: Solomons, Odilia I. The dietary practices of diverse population groups, associated with the nutritional transition and the rapid demographic changes occurring globally require more attention to the food preferences of migrant groups such as Latinos living in the United States United States of America US. This work aimed at the performance of an instrument utilized to measure availability of healthy food options in Latino stores located in the town of Somerville, state of Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. There was a general lack of healthy food options found when using the US survey, as well as a relatively narrow selection of fruits and vegetables. As conclusion, it was found that the US NEMS S tended to identify a lower number of healthy food options, as compared to a larger number of similar options when a culturally appropriate survey was used. These findings illustrate a manner in which a culture specific instrument perform more appropriately than similar instruments adapted for other population groups, especially when the results are to be applied to support development of healthy food policies. Este trabajo documenta los resultados de aplicar un instrumento para medir disponibilidad de alimentos saludables en tres tiendas latinas ubicadas en la ciudad de Somerville, estado de Massachusetts. La metodología utilizada incluyó la aplicación de dos versiones: guatemalteca y EU de la Encuesta para Medir Ambiente Nutricional en Tiendas NEMS S, siglas en inglés , para evaluar la disponibilidad de alimentos saludables. Los datos se analizaron con estadísticas descriptivas. Estos hallazgos ilustran la importancia de utilizar instrumentos específicos para determinar disponibilidad de alimentos saludables, especialmente cuando los resultados se utilicen para apoyar el desarrollo de políticas alimentarias. Recibido: 16 09 Aceptado: 11 03 Food patterns and consumption practices are intrinsic components of population groups across the world. Those dietary practices are influenced by the physical environment, particularly those products identified as edibles, but also by the cultural practices that define people. Extensive research indicates that food patterns play substantial roles in the causation and prevention of chronic, non communicable diseases 1 and that the food environment, including access to food outlets and the presence of healthy choices, is associated with eating behaviors 2, 3. It has been shown that shopping preferences are linked to obesity and that the lack of healthy food options in grocery stores leads to weight gain 4. Successful policies should also be part of a larger plan to change social norms 5. In response to this challenge, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores NEMS S was developed in the first decade of the millennium as a well defined measurement tool to examine the availability of healthy food options in grocery and convenience stores in the United States 6. We refer to this original instrument as US NEMS S Cultural factors play a significant role in determining shopping preferences, as food related behavior is modified by culture 7, 8. Stores targeted to specific ethnic groups, including Latinos, serve as important sites for the preservation of their homeland culture 10 , including their food preferences. Despite the significance of culture in shaping food preferences, current research lacks a culturally specific analysis of what drives food preferences, specifically for the growing Latino population, particularly recent arrivals of Central Americans Guatemalans, Hondurans and Salvadorians in the northeast region of the United States. The present study aimed to contribute with information to help to fill this gap in knowledge by assessing the applicability of the NEMS S survey modified for use in Guatemala 11 as compared to the original US NEMS S, which wa, both in its original version designed for the US population, and as modified for use in Guatemala The site identified for this study was Somerville, a small city located north of Boston, state of Massachusetts. Researchers believed that the conduct of the GUA NEMS S would result in a more thorough analysis of the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in stores in Latino communities in the US be cause the items on the survey would match those being sold in these culturally specific stores. The primary objective of this study was to test the GUA NEMS S to examine the food environment in a convenient, small sample of Latino stores, located in East Somerville, in which there is a rapidly growing Latino population, primarily of Central American origin. Secondarily, researchers also utilized the NEMS S surveys to assess the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino stores. Through enumeration of the study area Eastern Massachusetts , researchers selected the city of East Somerville, for its urban location and large Latino population, particularly recent migrants of Central American origins. A list of food outlets was compiled from a previous study conducted in the area 12 and from the Somerville census data. This study focused only on grocery stores. After the creation of an initial list, where 8 stores were identified, researchers visited the study area to narrow the store selection and to obtain permission from storeowners. Food outlets were categorized using the system described in the NEMS online training The local Institutional Review Board approved this study, and owners or managers of the Latino stores gave in formed consent. Finally, researchers created store layouts of the items sold in the three Latino stores and diagramed the floor plans. NEMS S was the tool used to quantify the availability of healthy food options in the three Latino grocery stores of study. This new survey was pilot tested in stores in Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and proved ac curate as a modification for items included in the Guatemalan diet The categories include: milk, fruit, vegetables each item. Within the categories, the individual items added to the Guatemala survey were papaya, pineapple, and plums for fruit, and green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoysquash, radishes and avocados for vegetables. These items were chosen to reflect the Guatemalan diet. Fruit and vegetable items were all considered healthy food options, and each additional category had regular and healthy options e. Pearson Chi Square tests were used to undertake four inquiries: 1. Inter survey comparison of the 29 common items: areas of interest were availability of healthier options, fruit, and vegetable items in the three Latino stores; 2. The stores were small, with only one or two cash registers. All three stores had sections for many of the same items found in larger stores and supermarkets. Many of the sections, however, were limited or lacking certain items. There were some unique properties to the stores. A lack of price labeling on the majority of food items was common to all three stores. Thus, the presence or absence of each of these items on the store shelves was identically reported by both raters for all three stores. Focusing on the non produce items Table 2 , all three stores had the following regular versions of index items: milk, baked goods, soda, juice, chips, and bread. Two out of three stores had skim milk, low sugar cereal, and whole wheat bread, on the healthier side, and regularly sweetened breakfast cereal. Only one store had frozen dinners and low fat baked goods available. Raters never found healthier versions of chips baked or frozen dinners low fat , nor were ground beef or hotdogs found in either regular or healthier format. Focusing on the specific avai lability of the healthier options, a first examination of the core items was done Table 2. For external comparability, a comparison of the core list of the 9 non produce items with soda and juice now constituting a single category of beverages was done across sites. The cumulative availability in Store 1 was By Chi square analysis, the differential availability, considering all 29 elements of the U. Four items in two contrast pairings i. All stores had both the healthier and re gular option for black beans. Conversely, neither skim nor whole milk in the boxed presentation was found in any store visited. Nine items were added to the GUA NEMS S, including three fruits: papaya, pineapple and plums, and six vegetables: green beans, zucchini, chayote, guicoy, radish and avocado Table 3. Store 1 had none of the additional fruits. Store 2 had two of the three additional fruits and Store 3 had all three additional fruits Table 3. With regard to the additional vegetable items, Store 1 had two of the six items; Stores 2 and 3 both had four of the six items Table 3. Data was normalized by expressing them as the cumulative percentage availability from each separate origin. Overall, the percentage availability of fruits in the three stores was In summary, two of the three stores had at least one of the three added fruits available; two of the three stores had at least two of the six added vegetables available. All stores had canned black beans available. Of the three published studies that reported the instrument performance of the NEMS S, the inter reliability determined by kappa had range of 0. Com pared to these previous studies, the performance of the GUA NEMS S was consistent or exceeded that of the previous studies who have reported statistics on instrument performance. The high inter rater concordance between NEMS S raters could be in part due to a couple of favorable conditions. This allowed raters to thoroughly conduct the surveys instead of furtively scurrying to collect the data. Although desirable, these conditions are not characteristic of grocery stores, so future NEMS S raters should precede with caution. Rimkus et al aptly note that in study where raters are in the same supermarket simultaneously collecting data low inter rater reliability is unlikely given that both raters are exposed to the same supermarket environment at the same time Results indicate a range of availability of healthy food items between the three stores. Although located in the same area, and providing their services to the same population, it was noticed that Store 1 was poorly stocked for healthy items, whereas Stores 2 and 3 were better stocked with Store 3 having a slight advantage. To date, there are few studies that report the availability of each US NEMS S item in detail rather than a composite healthy food score 16, When com pared to these studies, there was substantially lower availability of baked chips, low fat baked goods, low fat beef, low fat hot dogs and any type of fruit. It becomes evident in appreciating the degree of homology 29 of 40 items in common across the instruments and the imbalance in number of items added to the GUA NEMS S, that no strict comparison of performance of the two versions of the instruments can be made. This would require further development of comparably sized listings in which the availability of foods culturally preferred over the US options are substituted for some of those of the dominant culture in the US NEMS S. Hennen, et al. February J Personal Disord 19 1 : Fenton, L. McCarthy, et al. Hellerstein, J. Gerson, et al. J Psychiatr Pract 10 3 : Acceso el MD American Medical Network. Acceso Wilberg, S. Karterud enero Int J Group Psychother 57 1 : American Journal of Psychiatry 24 : Norrie, P. Tyrer, et al. Journal of Personality Disorders 20 5 : Accedido Linehan Psychiatric Clinics of North America 23 1 : PhD; J. Gunderson MD January McLean Hospital Psychiatic Update. Van Den Bosch, M. Koeter, et al. British Journal of Psychiatry : Comtois, A. Murray, et al. Archives of General Psychiatry 63 7 : Rossiter, J. Milner febrero- marzo Contemporary Nurse 21 1 : Spinhoven, et al. June Archives of General Psychiatry 63 6 : Nysaeter September J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 36 3 : J Personal Disord 18 1 : Segunda edición revisada y ampliada. Fonagy enero American Journal of Psychiatry 1 : Trastornos de la personalidad. Barcelona: Editorial Masson. Clarkin, L. Scott, et al. Journal of Clinical Psychology 62 : Meehan, K. Kelly, et al. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74 : PhD; K. Levy, PhD, M. Lenzenweger, PhD, et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry : Oxford University Press p. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 87 4 : Oxford University Press Ch. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4. Koenigsberg Verkes enero de Pharmacopsychiatry 38 1 : Medio pan y un libro. La frontera. Las hijas ausentes España Egales Redmann, J. Una nueva mitología queer. Huilo C. Voces en la narrativa lésbica España Egales Salado, Minerva ed. Amor a los pibe. Irene 36 movimientos hasta Argentina La bohemia Nachón. Volumen I Argentina Peek a boo Nachón. Color pastel. Fanzine de poesía. Poesía gay de Buenos Aires. El maestro de las telenovelas que revolucionó la educación sentimental de un país Argentina Sudamericana Malva Mi recordatorio. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Risk assessment is a measure that accounts for the time spent head dipping i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are the entries into the open arms vs. The anxiety behavior in this test is triggered by the high of the maze which evoke a greater strength of fear. The fear induces an avoidancebehavior, which in turn makes the animals prefer the closed arms We also included etholo gically derived measures related to the defensive pat tern of risk assessment behavior, which has been shown to bevery sensitive to changes in anxiety 19, The OF consisted of a black uncovered circular box 0. Each rat was placed in the central area and allowed to freely explore the ap paratus for 5 min, being filmed during this time. Sub sequently we recorded the total ambulation time i. Time spent immobile i. The measures that reflect anxiety likebehavior in this test are shorter horizontal locomotion number of cros sings ; greater time spent in the peripheral area; redu ced ambulation time; reduced central area ambulation time; and greater immobility time. Anxiolytic treat ments decrease the stress induced inhibition of explo ratory behavior Erythrocytes and plasma were prepared from wholeblood samples obtained from the rats. Wholeblood was collected and transferred to heparinized tubes for erythrocyte separation. Erythrocytes were was hed three times with cold saline solution 0. The supernatant was diluted in order to contain approximately 0. The results were expressed as nanomole of malon dialdehyde formed per milligram of protein. Catalase activity assay CAT was determined according Aebi method Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 disappea rance was continuously monitored with a spectropho tometer at nm for 90 seconds. Glutathione peroxidase activity assay GSH Px was determined by the method of Wendel 29 , with some modifications. Tert butylhy droperoxide was used as substrate. Nicotinamide ade nine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH disappearance was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm for 4 minutes. Su peroxide dismutase assay SOD was determined by the pyrogallol auto oxidation method, as described by Marklund The self oxidation of pyrogallol was continuously monitored with a spectrophotometer at nm. The specific activity was expressed as unit per mg of protein. Protein determination was performed by the method of Lowry et al. The variables were expressed as means and stan dard deviations. The determination of the differences between the experimental groups was performed using analysis ofv ariance ANOVA , two tailed food intake and body weight and one tailed other variables , with Tukey Kramer post test for parametric data or Krus kal Wallis test for non parametric data. The Normality of variable distribution was assessed by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Effects of treatment on body weight and food intake. No significant alterations were observed in body weight, percentage of gained weight and weekly food intake. The food intake of the first and second weeks of trial did not differ from each other data not shown. No statistical differences were observed between groups in the parameters analyzed in the EPM test. Effects of treatment on antioxidant serum activity. In this study, the cocoa treatment as sociated or not to classical music did not cause alterations in body weight gain or animal food intake. Regarding the EPM test, this study differs from one of our previous works using Mozart music in combina tion with medication simvastatin , in which we observed an adjuvant effect of the interventions in reducing anxiety A recent study published in pertinent lite rature may explain such differences in these results. Ac cording to Attoui et al. It is believed that as the animals in this present study were not exposed to stress stimuli, there was no hormonal dere gulation to be reverted by the treatment with music, if we consider this the mechanism of action. However, it is relevant to emphasize that there were significant dif ferences in the OF test variables; an anxiety behavior model with different peculiarities regarding action me chanisms. Therefore, the necessity of applying not only one paradigm to evaluate stress or emotional anxiety to behavior studies is reinforced. Either as a separate treatment or associated with cocoa powder, the classical music treatment promoted an increase in the total horizontal locomotion in the OF and also the horizontal peripheral locomotion, but did not affect the time spent in this region. It is also impor tant to highlight that both treatments significantly in creased the time spent in the central area of the field, and also the percentage of time spent in this area when compared to total ambulation time, which represents a rupture in the natural tendency of the rodents of moving to the peripheral area Taking into account the results seen in the OF test and that we saw no differences in the animals behavior at the EPM, it is possible to indicate a mild anxiolytic effect associated with an exploratory activity stimula tion, because as said before, anxiolytic treatments de crease the stress induced inhibition of exploratory behavior at the OF It is believed that this effect may be attributed mainly to classical music exposition, considering the results from CPMG and MG groups were similar, with exception to the total ambulation time higher than the control group only in the associa ted treatment of cocoa powder and classical music. There isn't a consensus regarding the appreciation of music by animals, however this determination is not necessary, taking into account that many mechanisms used to test its effect on anxiety and stress have already been reported in the literature. Mozart's music increases dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter synthesis in thebrain. This is due to its high frequency accentuated sounds a Hz compared to other classical music composers, endowing rats with greater neu rophysiologic effects, confirmed through alterations in autonomic responses such as blood pressure Fur thermore, music also significantly activates various subcortical regions in humans, including the nucleus accumbens NAc, cerebral area that plays a significant role in processing of motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement , the ventral tegmental area VTA, processes reward when it receives dopamine and the hypothalamus region of thebrain that modulates autonomous responses such as cardiac frequency and bre athing, which alter when exposed to pleasant musical sounds. The elevated dopamine release in the vTA and NAc may be the neurochemical mechanism which can explain the reward feelings brought by music 16, The stimulus of structures such as the amygdala, cor tex, hippocampus and hypothalamus by music and the way thebrain's attention channels are affected by soo thing auditory stimuli in a significant and distractive manner are also mentioned explanations In addition to the previous consideration, a musical approach has shown regulatory effects on the HPA axis, by reducing the levels of ACTH in stressed rats 18 , reducing salivary cortisol levels in humans under pre competition stress 15 , as well as in the absence of stress Stress shows consequences such as high blood pressure and endocrinal responses which lead to specific hormone release and also the activation of the sympathetic nervous system for the "fight or flight" res ponse, besides an immune response, showing alteration in markers such as Immunoglobulin A, interleukins IL 1,6 and 10 The "fight or flight" response may be triggered by mental activity such as anxiety, stress, depression and feelings of despair. As previously dis cussed, music reduces stressful and anxious behavior 13 and it eases some of these systemic markings not only the ACTH and cortisol , with the reduction of epi nephrine and IL 6 and also the elevation of the growth hormone GH in humans. It appears that this effect of music concerns neuroendocrine immune routes of ac tion 12, In this study, besides the fact that the cocoa powder treatment did not provoke a statistically significant mo dification in animal behavior, it is important to note that, even not significantly different of control, it in creased the average of peripheral crossings as well as the total ambulation time reducing the animal's time of immobility. It is noteworthy that only the group which received cocoa powder in association with music de monstrated a greater total ambulation time compared to the control group. It is possible that there may havebeen an adjuvant effect between the treatments, which did not manifest statistically when they wereboth con ducted in an isolated manner. Pertaining the usage of the cocoa powder, aspects such as thebioavailability of the polyphenolic compounds, compromised by the food matrix, interaction with diet constituents, genetic factors, microbiota metabolism and the enzymatic ac tivity of the colon 7 should be taken into account, since the intake of the same dosage of total cocoa poly phenols caused behavioral alterations to rats in a previous study 8. The use of cocoa in anxiety reduction is supported by the literature invarious courses of action. Because its bioactive compounds are elevated, it is believed that there may be a synergetic action between the compo nents in the production of the anxiolytic effect Cocoa polyphenols havebeen associated to elevation in the monoaminergic neurotransmitters, similarly to antidepressant drugs. As evidenced in the work of Ya mada et al. Messaoudi et al. Such behavioral effect has been suggested to the quercetin flavonoid , for acting in a similar manner to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors drugs such as tricyclic antidepressant. Considering the existence of a direct correlation between oxidative stress and anxiety, thebrain's high susceptibility to oxidative stress and the already proven antioxidant efficiency of cocoa, it is possible that this may also be a way of reducing anxiety. Evidences that oxidative stress plays a causal role in the development of anxious behavior in rats has in creased, as well as the evidences that an antioxidant in tervention may revert such effects The gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is different for an xious and non anxious rats in specific cerebral regions 20 , just as oxidative stress provokes an imbalance to antioxidant enzyme activity in the hippocampus asso ciated to the anxious behavior in rats during the OF test The same imbalance to the antioxidant defense was verified beyond the CNS, in many psychiatric di sorders among which, anxiety In spite of the fact that cocoa has an already established role in antioxidant defense improvement, the same does not apply to clas sical music, once no work in the literature has directly evaluated peripheral antioxidant activity with this tre atment, within our knowledge. In this study, all interventions, either associated or isolated, provoked a reduction to TBA RS levels in serum when compared to the control group Figure 2A. The efficiency with which the polyphenols are incor porated to LDL surface, thus increasing the resistance of this particle to both oxygen radicals and chelating transitional metal ions, is an exogenous antioxidant me chanism suggested for such compounds 6. Furthermore, endogenous antioxidant activity was also altered by treatments with cocoa powder and clas sical music, verified through the increase of enzymatic activity in serum. The average activity of the CAT enzyme was statistically superior only for the group treated with cocoa powder and concurrently exposed to music Figure 2B. Considering that the increase in CAT activity in our study was exclusive to the CPMG group, the existence of a common or synergetic mechanism between the interventions cocoa and classical music is probablebut still unex plored by science. In addition to this, the treatment with music reduced lipid peroxidation of the animals, pro bably through indirect mechanisms. In this study, we concluded that the cocoa powder, in the adopted dosage and used isolated, did not cause significant changes to animal behavior. The treatment with classical music by itself did demonstrate a mild anxiolytic effect. Both treatments cocoa powder and classical music improved the serum antioxidant status. This field of work needs further investigation in order to investi gate the correlation between oxidative stress and an xiety. A larger dose of cocoa is recommended in order to consider thebioavailability of the polyphenolic com pounds in the food matrix. Morebehavioral tests and also verification of antioxidant activity in structures of the central nervous system are recommended. Transtornos de ansiedade. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. World Health Organization [internet]. Mental health ac tion plan Accessed 17 May Bras J Health. Am J Psychiatry. The effect of alkalization on thebioactive and flavor related components in commercial cocoa powder. J Food Compost Anal. The J Nutr. Review: Health Effects of Cocoa Flavonoids. Food Sci Technol Int. Antidepressant like effects of a cocoa polyphenolic ex tract in Wistar Unilever rats. Nutr Neurosci. Flavonoides como estrategia terapéutica en neurodegeneración: hallazgos y retos. J Nutr Biochem. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomi zed, placebo controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol. The impact of music on metabolism. Yehuda N. Music and Stress. J Adult Dev. J Music Ther. Overture for growth hormone: requiem for in terleukin 6?. Crit Care Med. Akiyama K, Sutoo D. Effect of different frequencies of music on blood pressure regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurosci Lett. Middle East Journal of Scien tific Research. Adjuvant effects of classical music on simvastatin induced reduction of anxiety but not ob ject recognition memory in rats. Psychol Neurosci. Glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reduc tase 1 regulate anxiety in mice. Nature ; 6. Oxidative stress in the hippocampus, anxiety likebehavior and decreased locomotory and exploratory ac tivity of adult rats: effects of sub acutev itamin A sup plementation at therapeutic doses. Oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: evidencebase and therapeutic implications. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 11 6 : Moderate treadmill exercise prev ents oxidative stress induced anxiety likebehavior in rats. Behav Brain Res. Prut I, Belzung C. The open field as a paradigm to me asure the effects of drugs on anxiety likebehaviors: a review. Eur J Pharmacol. J Neurosci Methods. Ethological and temporal analyses of anxiety likebehavior: the elevated plus maze model 20 years on. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. Aebi H. Catalase inv itro. Methods in enzymology. Wendel A. Glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol. Marklund SL. Direct assay of superoxide dismutase with potassium superoxide. In: Greenwald RA. Hand book of methods for oxygen radical research. Pro tein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. Menonv , Levitin DJ. The rewards of music listening: response and physiological connectivity of the meso limbic system. Cocoa enriched diet enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and modulates lymphocyte composition in thymus from young rats. Activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal stress axis indu ces cellular oxidative stress. Front Neurosci. Acessed 07 June Crescimento alcançado e estado nutricional de escolares. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Universidade Paulista. O aumento da prevalência do excesso de peso é observado em todas as idades, inclusive nos países em desenvolvimento. Attained growth and nutritional status of schoolchildren. The increasing prevalence of obesity is oc curring in all ages, including in developing countries. The objective was to evaluate the achieved growth and nutritio nal status of two groups of schoolchildren from public scho ols: one at the beginning of school age and another in the transition to adolescence. The analysis of sample with children, divided into two groups according to the age, a group of 6 and 7 years G1 and the other with 9 and 10 years G2 , from the public elementary schools of Floriano polis. Measures of central ten dency, dispersion and proportions based data analysis. The results were: the average age of G1 and G2 was respectively of 6. The z score of BMI dis tribution showed a deviation to the right, with an average of 0. In con clusion, the schoolchildren showed in appropriate height growth concomitantly to the absence of malnutrition and a very high prevalence of excess weight, which can re present a late stage of Nutritional Transition. Key words: Nutritional status, growth, children, students, obesity, nutritional transition. O excesso de peso na infância vem aumentando, tanto em países desenvolvidos quanto em desenvolvi mento, nos diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. Estima se que, no mundo, mais de 22 milhões de crianças menores de cinco anos sejam obesas, e que uma em cada dez crianças tenha excesso de peso 3. A obesidade infantil é um importante fator de risco para a obesidade na idade adulta, e as crianças obesas tendem a ser mais altas do que seus pares com peso normal. A coleta de dados ocorreu no pri meiro semestre do ano letivo de e foi realizada nas próprias escolas. A amostragem foi realizada por conglomerados, de maneira probabilística e aleatória, a partir da listagem das classes dos escolares. As classes unidade amostral foram sorteadas de maneira sequencial até que o lote amostral estimado de crianças para cada idade e sexo estivesse completo. Os escolares foram pesados com mínimo de roupa possí vel somente com calça e camiseta e descalços, sendo posicionados em pé sobre a plataforma da balança com o peso do corpo igualmente distribuído entre os pés, os braços caídos ao longo do corpo e olhando para frente Após posicionar o escolar firmemente, deslocou-se a haste móvel do estadiômetro até a parte superior da cabeça e, a medida foi registrada em milímetro Os valores mensurados de peso e estatura foram transformados em escore z, com base nos valores do referencial da OMS de Foram excluídas 4 crianças: 2 postadoras de síndrome genético, uma com hipotireiodismo e uma nefropata. Tabela 1. Figura 2. Quanto ao crescimento estatural alcançado, os es colares aos 6 anos de idade, apresen tam uma estatura adequada, inclusive em média tendendo a ser superior à proposta pelo referencial da OMS. Esta tendência de crescimento ade quado é a mesma inclusive entre os escolares mais velhos, próximos da idade de início da puberdade Com resultados diferentes, Salomons et al. A obesidade grave aparece com uma prevalência muito elevada quando comparada ao esperado pelo referencial. Epidemic increase in child hood overweight, Global burden of obesity in and projections to Int J Obes Lond. Child hood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutr J. A family-based inter vention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity:conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study. BMC Public Health. Determinantes psicobio lógicos do comportamento alimentar: uma ênfase em fatores ambientais que contribuem para a obesidade. Psicol USP. Size at birth, childhood growth and obesity in adult life. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in anthropometric status in a population undergoing the nutritional tran sition: data from , and Pelotas Birth Cohort studies. Stovitz SD, et al. Articles epidemiology. Volume 16 Number 10, Portal Brasil. Acesso em: 10 Janeiro, Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Geneva: WHO; Growth reference data for years. Acesso em Janeiro, Sistema de vigilância alimentar e nutricional. Acesso em: 10 jul Estado nutricional de escolares de seis a dez anos de idade da rede muni cipal de ensino de Arapoti, Parana. Cinean tropom. Desempenho Hum. Irene 36 movimientos hasta Argentina La bohemia Nachón. Volumen I Argentina Peek a boo Nachón. Color pastel. Fanzine de poesía. Poesía gay de Buenos Aires. El maestro de las telenovelas que revolucionó la educación sentimental de un país Argentina Sudamericana Malva Mi recordatorio. Penguin Spoto, Donald Audrey Hepburn. Un año sin amor. Sexo oral. Para mujeres que queremos sexo seguro con mujeres dos copias Colombia Mujeres al borde AA. Todo sexo es político. Estudios sobre sexualidades en Argentina dos copias Argentina Libros del zorzal Pecheny, Mario et al. La intemperie y lo intempestivo. Indagaciones por la diversidad. Valor y símbolo. Diseño para lograr la igualdad. Buenos Aires..

J Food Lipids. Durante la celebración de la Tercera Conferencia sobre los Problemas de Nutrición en la América Latina, ense consideró extraoficialmente la creación de una revista latinoamericana de nutrición. En Noviembre de se celebra en Caracas las Primeras Jornadas Venezolanas de Nutrición y allí se plantea la necesidad de la creación de una revista latinoamericana con el fin de centralizar en ella los numerosos trabajos que se elaboran en el hemisferio, ya que la mayoría de ellos se encuentran dispersos en publicaciones de difícil acceso.

En consonancia con este criterio, durante el Congreso de Nutrición del Hemisferio Occidental celebrado en Noviembre de en Chicago, Illinois, se Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición, SLAN, y uno de sus principales objetivos es la publicación de una revista que recoja las investigaciones que sobre Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual se llevan a cabo en Latinoamérica.

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https://home-b.puzzle-games.website/rss-10864.php En un hermoso gesto, el Gobierno de Venezuela, en comunicación firmada por el Dr. Conrado F. Cito textualmente parte de la comunicación del Dr. A continuación la Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición inicia en Caracas la publicación de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición bajo la responsabilidad editorial del Dr.

Ricardo Bressani desempeña el cargo de Editor General. En la Evaluación Integral deALAN obtiene una calificación de 80 puntos, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual quedar en el quinto lugar sobre un total de 22 revistas.

La presencia de Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición como órgano divulgativo oficial de la SLAN, ha sido relevante en estos eventos científicos. A continuación un listado de los 17 Congresos de la SLAN realizados, Borderlands 2 monty esposa disfunción sexual lo presidió, ciudad, país y fecha.

Congreso I. José E. Dutra de Oliveira. Caracas, Venezuela. Septiembre Hard core porn fucking.

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